The state of relations between the U.S. and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies between the end of WW2 and 1990; based on creation of political spheres of influence and a nuclear arms race rather than actual warfare.
Nations favorable to the Soviet union in eastern Europe during the cold war- particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and East Germany.
American president from 1945 to 1952; less eager for smooth relations with the Soviet Union than Franklin Roosevelt; authorized use of atomic bomb during WW2; architect of American diplomacy that initiated the cold war.
Phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe the division between free and communist societies talking shape in Europe after 1946.
Program of substantial loans initiated by the U.S. in 1947; designed to aid Western nations in rebuilding from the war's devastation; vehicle for American economic dominance.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
created in 1949 under U.S. leadership to group most of the western European powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible soviet aggression.
Alliance organized by Soviet Union with is eastern European satellites to balance formation of NATO by Western powers in 1949.
New activism of the western European state in economic policy and welfare issues after WW2; introduced programs to reduce the impact of economic inequitably; typically included medical programs and economic planning.
New type of bureaucrat; intensely trained in engineering or economics and developed to the power of national planning; came to fore in offices of governments following WW2.
Political parties especially in Europe, focusing on environmental issues and control over economic growth.
Began as European Economic community (or common Market), an alliance of Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, to create a single economic entity across national boundaries in 1958; later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, Finland, and other nations for further European economic integration.
Built in 1961 to halt the flow of immigration from East Berlin to West Berlin; immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics; torn down at end of cold war in 1991.
Polish labor movement formed in 1970s under Lech Walesa; challenged U.S.S.R. dominated government of Poland.
Russian author critical of the Soviet regime but also of Western materialism; published trilogy on the Siberian prison camps. The Gulag Archipelago.
Stalin's successor as head of U.S.S.R. from 1953 to 1964; attacked Stalinism in 1956 for concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship; failure of Siberian development program and antagonism of Stalinist led to downfall.