What are autotrophs?
"self-feeders" Organisms that make all their own organic matter.
What are heterotrophs?
"other feeders" Organisms that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
What are producers?
Depend entirely on phoosynthesis for food (i.e. plants).
What are consumers?
Consume their food by eating plants or by eating animals that have eaten plants (i.e. humans)
What chemical ingedients do plants require from the environment in order to synthesize their own food?
CO2, H20, and soil minerals.
What is aerobic process?
(cellular respiration) Another way of saying that it requires oxygen.
What is cellular respiration?
The aerobic harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules.
What are redox reactions?
Chemical reactions that tranfer electrons from one substance to another substance are called oxidation-reduction reactions.
What is oxidation?
The loss of electrons during a redox reaction.
What is reduction?
The acceptance of electrons during a redox reaction.
What is glycolysis?
A molecule of glucose is split into 2 molecules of a compound called pyruvic acid.
Where are the enzymes for glycosis located?
In the cytoplasm.
What is the Citric Acid cycle?
AKA The Krebs cycle; Completes the breakdown of glucose all the way to CO2, one of the waste products of cellular respiration.
What is electron transport?
The third stage of cellular respiration. Electrons are captured from food by the NADH formed in the first 2 stages "fall" down electron transport chains to oxygen.
What are the 3 stages of Cellular Respiration?
-The Citric Acid Cycle
What is the potential energy source that drives ATP production by ATP synthase?
A concentration gradient of H+ across the inner membrane of a mitochondria.
Which stage of cellular respiration produces the majority of ATP?
What is fermentation?
Anaerobic harvest of food energy.
How many molecules of ATP can be purchased from one molecule of glucose during fermentation?
One of the key differences between slow- and fast-twitch muscles is whether they require _____ when making ATP for energy
Some microorganisms that live around hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean use inorganic energy sources and compounds to produce their own food. Therefore, these organisms are considered to be _____.
The function of cellular respiration is to __________.
extract usable energy from glucose
If humans did not breathe in O2, we would not __________.
make enough ATP to meet our energy requirements
An electron carrier acts as an energy-storage molecule when it is _____
A molecule is oxidized when it __________.
loses an electron
In cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced
glucose ... oxygen
During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur __________.
in the cytosol
During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of the citric acid cycle occur in __________.
the fluid within the mitochondrion
Most of the electrons released from glucose by cell respiration __________.
are bound to NAD+ to be sent through electron transport
Immediately after completion of the citric acid cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____.
In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and in a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in _____.
What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvic acid?
Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from _____.
the citric acid cycle
The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used to __________.
pump H+ through a membrane
The ATP synthase in a human cell gets energy for making ATP directly from __________
the flow of H+ through a membrane
Which part of the breakdown of glucose requires molecular oxygen (O2)?
the electron transport chain
During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used __________.
at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O
In the citric acid cycle, the energy production per glucose molecule is __________.
2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2
Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from __________.
the flow of electrons across the inner mitochondrial membrane
How much ATP can a cell make from one glucose molecule in the presence of carbon monoxide?
A chemist has discovered a drug that blocks an enzyme that catalyzes some of the reactions of glycolysis. He wants to use the drug to kill bacteria in people with infections. However, he cannot do this because __________.
human cells also perform glycolysis; the drug might also poison them