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Important terms, principles, concepts

PV = K

Boyle's Law

V/T = K

Charlse's Law

P/T = K

Gay - Lussac Law

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 = K

Combined Gas Law

22.4L

1 mol of ALL gasses takes up ____ at STP

PV = nRT

Ideal Gass Law

P/RT

Density

KE = 0.5mv^2

Graham's Law of Effusion & Diffusion

Lose electron oxidation
Gain electron reduction

LEO says GER

Compounds are made up of combinations of atoms
All atoms of a given element are alike
All matter is composed of atoms
A chemical reaction involves the rearrangement of atoms

Atomic Theory

HCl
HBr
HI
H2SO4
H3PO4
HNO3

Strong Acids

NaOH
KOH
LiOH
Ca(OH)2
Br(OH)2
Sr(OH)2

Strong Bases

H+ donor

Arrhenius Acid

OH- donor

Arrhenius Base

Proton donor

Bronsted - Lowry Acid

Proton acceptor

Bronsted - Lowry Base

Electron pair acceptor

Lewis Acid

Electron pair donor

Lewis Base

Delta H is less than 0

Exothermic

Delta H is greater than 0

Endothermic

rxn favors product

Keq is greater than 1

rxn favors reactant

Keq is less than 1

favors forward reaction

Q is less than Keq

favors reverse reaction

Q is greater than Keq

Equilibrium

Q = Keq

Group 1A ions, NH4+, N03-, C2H3O2- (100% soluble)
Cl-,Br-, I- (except Ag+, Pb+2)
SO4-2 (Except Pb+2, Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2)

Water-soluble

PO4-3, CO3-2 (except group 1A ions, NH4+)
S-2 (except group 1A ions, NH4+, Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2)
OH-(except group 1A ions, NH4+, Ba+2, Sr+2, Ca+2)

Water insoluble

OH 1-

Hydroxide

NO2 1-

Nitrite

NO3 1-

Nitrate

ClO 1-

Hypochlorite

ClO2 1-

Chlorite

ClO3 1-

Chlorate

MnO3 1-

Permanganate

C2H3O2 1-

Acetate

CN 1-

Cyanide

CO3 2-

Carbonate

SO3 2-

Sulfite

SO4 2-

Sulfate

CrO4 2-

Chromate

Cr2O7 2-

Dichromate

PO4 3-

Phosphate

NH4 1+

Ammonium

H3O 1+

Hydronium

R-OH
-ol
methanol, ethanol

Alcohol

R-O-R
ether
dimethyl ether
diethyl ether

Ethers

R-CHO
-al
methanal
butanal

Aldehydes

R-COR
-one
propanone

Ketones

R-COOH
-oic acid
acetic acid
formic acid

Carboxylic Acids

R-COOR
- oate, -ate
acetate
methyl propnoate

Esters

R-NH2, R-NH-R
amine
methyl amine, ethyl amine

Amines

R-NHCO-R
amide
acetamide

Amides

emits alpha particle from an atom's necleus
contains two protons and two neutrons (He)

Alpha radiation

increases the atomic number by one by adding one proton
mass stays the same

Beta radiation

neither the atomic number nor te mass number is changed

Gamma radiation

multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus

Fusion reaction

opposite of fusion reaction

Fission reaction

Oxidaition = Reducing agent

Loss of Electrons

Reduction = Oxidizing agent

Gain of Electrons

Ecell = Ered + Eox

Standard electromotive force

the reaction is spontaneous

Delta G is negative

the reaction is not spontaneous

Delta G is positive

the system is at equilibrium, at Delta H = TDeltaS

Delta G is zero

more order, less random

negative entropy

less order, more random

positive entropy

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