LOM Ch 11 Cardiovascular System

158 terms by wilson28018

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

aorta

Largest artery in the body.

arteriole

Small artery

artery

Largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body.

atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)

Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. His is pronounced "hiss".

atrioventricular node (AV node)

Specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. Electrical impulses pass from the paacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.

atrium (plural: atria)

One of two upper chambers of the heart.

capillary

Smallest blood vessel. materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.

carbon dioxide

Gas (waste) released by the body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation.

coronary arteries

Blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.

deoxygenated blood

Blood that is oxygen-poor.

diastole

Relaxation phase of the heartbeat

electrocardiogram

Record of the electricity flowing through the heart. The electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T.

endocardium

Inner lining of the heart

endothelium

Innermost lining of blood vessels.

mitral valve

Valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve.

murmur

Abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves.

myocardium

Muscular, middle layer of the heart.

normal sinus rhythm

Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

oxygen

Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells.

pacemaker (sinoatrial node)

Specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.

pericardium

Double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.

pulmonary artery

Artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs

pulmonary circulation

Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.

pulmonary valve

Valve positioned between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery

pulmonary vein

One of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.

pulse

Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries

septum (plural: septa)

Partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum).

sinoatrial node (SA node)

pacemaker of the heart.

sphygmomanometer

Instrument to measure blood pressure.

systemic circulation

Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissue.

systole

Contraction phase of the heartbeat.

tricuspid valve

Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three leaflets, or cusps.

valve

Structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.

vein

Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. Veins contain valves to prevent blackflow of blood.

vena cava (plural: venae cavae)

Largest vein in the body. The superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart.

ventricle

One of two lower chambers of the heart.

venule

Small vein.

angi/o

vessel

aort/o

aorta

arter/o

artery

arteri/o

artery

ather/o

yellowish plaque, fatty substance

atri/o

atrium, upper heart chamber

brachi/o

arm

cardi/o

heart

cholesterol/o

cholesterol (a lipid substance)

coron/o

heart

cyan/o

blue

myx/o

mucus

ox/o

oxygen

pericardi/o

pericardium

phleb/o

vein

rrhythm/o

rhythm

sphygm/o

pulse

steth/o

chest

thromb/o

clot

valvul/o

valve

valv/o

valve

vas/o

vessel

vascul/o

vessel

ven/o

vein

ven/i

vein

ventricul/o

ventricle, lower heart chamber

arrhythmias

Abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias)

What 3 examples of arrhythmias does the book list?

bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block), flutter, and fibrillation.

bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block)

Failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)

flutter

Rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria

fibrillation

Very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart (350 beats or more per minute).

congenital heart disease

Abnormalities in the heart at birth.

What are the 4 examples of congenital heart disease that the book lists?

coarctation of the aorta (CoA), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot.

coarctation of the aorta (CoA)

Narrowing (coarctation) of the aorta.

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (patent) after birth.

septal defects

Small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects).

tetralogy of Fallot

Congenital malformation involving four distinct heart defects. The four defects are: Pulmonary artery stenosis (Pulmonary artery is narrow or obstructed), Ventricular septal defect (Large hole between two ventricles lets venous blood pass from the right to the left ventricle and out to the aorta without oxygenation), Shift of the aorta to the right (Aorta overrides the interventricular septum. Oxygen-poor blood passes from the right ventricle to the aorta), and Hypertrophy of the right ventricle (Myocardium works harder to pump blood through a narrowed pulmonary artery.)

congestive heart failure

Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.

coronary artery disease (CAD)

Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart.

acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)

Unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries.

endocarditis

Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart.

hypertensive heart disease

High blood pressure affecting the heart.

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

Improper closure of the mitral valve.

murmur

Extra heart sound, heard between normal beats.

pericarditis

Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart.

rheumatic heart disease

Heart disease caused by rheumatic fever.

aneurysm

Local widening (dilation) of an arterial wall.

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb.

hypertension (HTN)

High blood pressure

peripheral arterial disease (PAD)

Blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys, and other organs.

Raynaud disease

Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes.

varicose veins

Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs.

angina (pectoris)

Chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. Stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion.

angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

Antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke and death.

auscultation

Listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope.

beta-blocker

Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.

biventricular pacemaker

Device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the hear heart.

bruit

Abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ.

calcium channel blocker

Drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels.

cardiac arrest

Sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death

cardiac tamponade

Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space.

claudication

Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest.

digoxin

Drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat.

infarction

Area of dead tissue

nitrates

Drugs used in the treatment of angina. They dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue.

nitroglycerin

Nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina

occlusion

Closure of a blood vessel due to blockage

palpitations

Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)

patent

Open

pericardial friction rub

Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis.

petechiae

Small, pinpoint hemorrhages.

statins

Drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream.

thrill

Vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery)

vegetations

Clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves.

BNP test

Measurement of BNP (brain natriuretic peptide) in blood

cardiac biomakers

Chemicals are measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack.

lipid tests (lipid profile)

Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample.

lipoprotein electrophoresis

Lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample.

angiography

X-ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material.

computed tomography angiography (CTA)

Three-dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography (CT) (64-slice CT scanner)

digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

Video equipment and a computer produce x-ray images of blood vessels

electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT)

Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD

Doppler ultrasound studies

Sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels.

echocardiography (ECHO)

Echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart.

positron emission tomography (PET) scan

Images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose.

technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan

Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in the cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning

thallium 201 scan

Concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle.

cardiac MRI

Images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field.

cardiac catheterization

Thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery.

electrocardiography (ECG)

Recording of electricity flowing through the heart.

Holter monitoring

An ECG devise is worn during a 24-hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias

stress test

Exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress).

catheter ablation

Brief delivery of radiofrequency or cryosurgery to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias.

coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)

Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.

defibrillation

Brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation).

endarterectomy

Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery.

extracorporeal circulation

Heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired.

heart transplantation

A donor heart is transferred to a recipient

percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

Balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place.

thrombolytic therapy

Drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis.

angiogram

record of a vessel

angioplasty

surgical repair of a blood vessel

aortic stenosis

narrowing pertaining to aorta

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

arterial anastomosis

new connection between two arteries

arteriography

process of recording arteries

endarterectomy

Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery.

atheroma

COLLECTIONS OF PLAQUE THAT PROTRUDE INTO THE LUMEN (OPENING) OF AN ARTERY, WEAKENING THE MUSCLE LINING

atherosclerosis

the most common form of arteriosclerosis. Caused by the formation of yellowish plaques of chlolesterol on the inner walls of arteries.

atherectomy

the surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery

atrial

pertaining to the atrium

atrioventricular

pertaining to the atrium and ventricle

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set