"Political Bureau" in the U.S.S.R. that was titularly the executive committee but in reality was, especially under Stalin, a rubber-stamp organization.
Sinn Fein Party
"Ourselves Alone" Irish nationalistic party, formed just after World War I.
Leader of Communist Russia.
The prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. He established a repressive fascist regime that valued nationalism, militarism, anti-liberalism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda. Mussolini became a close ally of German dictator Adolf Hitler, whom he influenced. Mussolini entered World War II in June, 1940 on the side of Nazi Germany. Three years later, the Allies invaded Italy. In April 1945 Mussolini attempted to escape to German-controlled Austria, only to be captured and killed near Lake Como by Communist Resistance units.
A system introduced in the Soviet Union under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka.
Secret police in the Soviet Union, organized under Stalin. They arrested "enemies of the revolution", and began the Red Terror.
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army. He competed with Stalin for leadership of the Soviet Union, and lost.
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition.
German dictator from 1933 to 1945. Founded the Nazi Party and after gaining control of Germany from Hindenburg, became a totalitarian dictator. He took control of productions and manufacturing, installed a secret police, violated the Treaty of Versailles and essentially started WWII, and was responsible for the murder of millions of Jewish people during the Holocaust.
Book writen by Hitler where he outlines his beliefs: Germans are a superior race, The Treaty of Versailles treated Germany unfairly and that a crowed Germany needed the lands of Eastern Europe and Russia. Became the ideological and political guide for the Nazi party.
Russian for "The Truth". A leading newspaper of the Soviet Union and an official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party between 1918 and 1991. Still in operation in Russia, but most famous in Western countries for its pronouncements during the period of the Cold War.
An international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
A term used to describe the German republic that lasted from 1919 until 1933, when Nazi party leader Adolf Hitler suspended the constitution and assumed power. The republic was established after workers and troops in the German empire revolted in early 1918 against the government's refusal to end WWI. On November 9, Emperor William II fled the country and a provisional coalition government was formed between the moderate Social democrats under Friedrich Ebert and the more radical Independent Social Democrats, who were hoping for a more fundamental socialist revolution. The new National Assembly met in Weimar, Thuringen, in February 1919 and wrote a constitution that established Germany as a democratic federal republic and provided for two houses of parliament, the Reichstag and the Reichsrat. Ebert was elected president of the new republic.
A modern political ideology that seeks to regenerate the social, economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity. It originated under the ideals of Benito Mussolini. Fascism rejects liberal ideas such as freedom and individual rights, and often presses for the destruction of elections, legislatures, and other elements of democracy. Its attempts to build fascist societies have led to wars and persecutions that caused millions of deaths; fascism is strongly associated racism, totalitarianism, and violence.
As the Bolshevik Party encountered domestic opposition and a fear of losing hold of the nation, Lenin issued the New Economic Policy. In addition to banking, transportation, heavy industry, and international commerce, the government was also required to sustain private enterprise. Peasants were able to farm for profit, and sell their harvest to an open market. However, these subjects were also liable for taxes. This aspect of the policy reflected Lenin's esteem for the Russian peasantry within the revolution.
Locarno Agreements of 1925
After the Treaty of Paris, the Locarno Agreements were settled to improve this tense post-war situation with Germany by reaching to prevent future wars. France and Germany wanted more security from each other. Thus, they were able to achieve this by setting Germany's Western border. Also, Germany agreed not to choose combat as a means of resolving differences with France or Belgium. Further, the agreements provided for Germany's admission into the League of Nations the next year.