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Revolutions to Imperialism

Industrial Revolution

The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories, transit, and communications

division of labor

Manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, increasing productivity

mechanization

use of automatic machinery to increase production

Richard Arkwright

English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once.

James Watt

Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)

laissez faire

idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs

Positivism

A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress. Popular in France and Latin America.

utopian socialism

Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively

Simon Bolivar

Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule

Miguel Hidalgo

Mexican priest and revolutionary. Although the revolt he initiated (1810) against Spanish rule failed, he is regarded as a national hero in Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.

Benito Juarez

a Mexican president (was Indian) who fought for a better life for the poor

abolitionist

one who opposes the practice of slavery

Muhammad Ali

Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.

Tanzimat

'Restructuring' reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to move civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureacracy more efficient.

Crimean War

(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industiralize.

Young Ottomans

Movement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Slavophiles

Those in mid-nineteenth century Russia who believed Russia had a special destiny of its own which imitation of Western Europe would only weaken or pervert.

Decembrist Revolt

place in Russia on December 14 1825, Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.

Opium War

War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)

Bannermen

Hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire, in large part descendants of peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire. (p. 684)

Treaty of Nanking

Treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded Hong Kong to Britain.

Treaty ports

Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire and foreign signatories. In the treaty ports, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality. (p. 685)

Taiping Rebellion

1854-1868 Christian peasant led 14 year-long rebellion in China; demanded equality, no private propery, dividing of harvest (they lost)

"legitimate" trade

Trade between Afria and Europe that replaced the slave trade. Did not involve the the sale and transportation of innocent people.

Nawab

A Muslim prince allied to British India; technically, a semi-autonomous deputy of the Mughal emperor.

sepoy

An Indian soldier serving under British command.

British Raj

The name given to the period and territory of direct British colonial rule in South Asia between 1858 and 1947--from the time of the attempted Indian Revolt (Sepoy Mutany) to the Independence of India.

Durbar

the room in the palace of a native prince of India in which audiences and receptions occur

Indian Civil Service

The elite professional class of officials who administered the government of British India. Originally composed exclusively of well-educated British men, it gradually added qualified Indians.

clipper Ship

Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessel, often American built, of the mid-to-late nineteenth century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts.

Contract of indenture

A voluntary agreement binding a person to work for a specified period of years in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800, most were Europeans; after 1800 most were Asians

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