# Ch.2

## 25 terms

### Dependent Variable

A variable that is caused or influenced by another.

### Controlled Experiment

An experiment that's compared to a standards, or control- an exact duplicate of the experiment except for the condition of the one variable being tested. Any difference in outcome between the experiment and the control can be attributed to the effect of the independent variable.

### Deductive Reasoning

Drawing a conclusion from initial definitions and assumptions by means of logical reasoning.

### Disprovability

The ability to be disproved

### Experimental Controls

A group not exposed to the manipulated variable in the experiment so that it can be compared with other groups exposed to the manipulated variable

### Explanation

a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.

### Fact

When what is observed about a particular thing is agreed on by all, or almost all

### Hypothesis

An explanation set forth in a manner that can be tested and is capable of being disproved.

### Independent Variable

A variable that is controlled or manipulated by the researcher.

### Inductive Reasoning

Drawing a general conclusion from a limited set of specific observations.

### Inference

Generalization that arises from a set of observations.

### Manipulated Variable

A factor or condition that is intentionally changed in an experiment.

### Model

A deliberately simplified explanation, often physical, mathematical, pictorial, or computer- simulated, of complex phenomena or processes.

### Observations

Information obtained through one or more of the five senses or through instruments that extend the senses.

### Operational Definitions

Definitions that tell you what you need to look for or do in order to carry out an operation, such as measuring, constructing, or manipulating.

### Premises

Initial definitions and assumptions

### Probability

The relative probability that an event will occur

### Pseudoscientific

Ideas that are claimed to have scientific validity, but are inherently untestable and/ or lack empirical support and/ or were arrived at through faulty reasoning or poor scientific methodology

### Qualitative Data

Data that are distinguished by qualities or attributes that cannot or are not expressed as quantities.

### Quantitative Data

Data that are expressed as numbers or numerical measurements.

### Responding Variable

One that responds to changes in the manipulated variable.

### Scientific Method

A set of systematic methods by which scientists investigate natural phenomena, including gathering data, formulating and testing hypothesis, and prediction, a notion, or a belief

### Scientific Theory

A grand scheme that relates and explains many observations and is supported by a great deal of evidence, in contrast to a guess, a hypothesis, a prediction, a notion, or a belief.

### Theories

Scientific models that offer broad, fundamental explanations of related phenomena and are supported by consistent and extensive evidence

### Variable

something that is likely to vary