Trace the air flow through the respiratory system starting with the external nares.
1. external nares
2. nasal cavity
3. internal nares
9. primary bronchus
10. secondary bronchus
11. tertiary bronchus
13. terminal bronchiole
14. respiratory bronchiole
15. alveolar duct
16. alveolar sac
Name three structural changes that occur in the bronchi as they branch into bronchioles
1. smaller diameter
2. less cartilage; more smooth muscle
3. epithelium changes from columnar to cuboidal
Tubular airways that begin the respiratory zone
1. respiratory bronchioles
Connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea
Tube-like structure that conducts air from the larynx to the bronchi
Closes over the glottis during swallowing
Keep the trachea from collapsing
5. tracheal cartilages
Division of the bronchi that enter bronchopulmonary segments
6. tertiary bronchioles
Last division of the conducting zone
7. terminal bronchioles
Conducts air from the nasopharynx to the larynogopharnx
Small, round sacs where gas exchange occurs
Small conduction airway that serves a lobule
What type of epithelium is found in the nasal cavity through nasopharynx
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
What type of epithelium is found in the Oropharynx through larynx above vocal cords
What type of epithelium is found in the Larynx below vocal cords through primary bronchi?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
What type of epithelium is found in the secondary bronchi through tertiary bronchi?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
What type of epithelium is found in the bronchioles through beginning of respiratory bronchiole?
What type of epithelium is found in the end of respiratory bronchiole through alveoli?
What type of epithelium secretes mucus to trap and remove dust and debris?
pseudostratified ciliated columnar
What type of epithelium has the diffusioon of respiratory gases?
What type of epithelium protects underlying tissues?
Explain how it is possible for a person to drink liquid and then have the liquid come out through the nose when the person laughs.
1. The oropharynx is connected to the nasopharynx via the internal nares. When the mouth is closed, air from the laryngopharynx forces food or liquid from the mouth up through these passageways into the nasal cavity and out the external nares.
Explain how an infection in the nasopharynx can also result in an infection in the paranasal sinuses and/or the middle ear.
2. The ducts of paranasal sinuses open into the nasal cavity, and bacteria can move from the nasopharynx through the internal nares and into the nasal cavity. The auditory tube connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx. Bacteria can move up this tube and into the middle ear.
Asthma attacks are caused by smooth muscle spasm in the bronchial tree. These spasms can close the airway. What airway structures are closed? Why are these areas closed but not the rest of the bronchial tree?
distal bronchioles (terminal bronchioles); These airways lack cartilage that is present in the rest of the conducting zone.
With emphysema, how do the changes in the alveolar structure cause a decrease in blood oxygen levels?
The person cannot exhale air very well due to enlarged, air-filled sacs that have lost their elasticity. Very little air can be inhaled at each breath and gas exchange
is decreased, lowering blood oxygen levels.
With pneumonia, how do the changes in the alveolar structure cause a decrease in blood oxygen levels?
6. The respiratory membrane of alveolar walls are thickened due to inflammation and the alveoli and bronchioles are plugged with fluid. Both conditions decrease the gas exchange rate and lower blood oxygen levels.
Elevates 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs
Elevates the sternum
Compresses abdominal contents and increases abdominal pressure
Elevates first and second ribs
Main inspiratory muscle
Muscles used in forced exhalation
abdominal muscles, internal intercostals
During inhalation does the thoracic volume increase or decrease?
During exhalation does the thoracic volume increase or decrease?
During inhalation does the intrapleural cavity volume increase or decrease?
During exhalation does the intrapleural cavity volume increase or decrease?
During inhalation does the intrapleural volume increase or decrease?
During exhalation does the intrapleural volume increase or decrease?
During inhalation does the lung volume increase or decrease?
During exhalation does the lung volume increase or decrease?
During inhalation does the alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure increase or decrease?
During exhalation does the alveolar (intrapulmonic) pressure increase or decrease?
What lung volume is equal to TV + IRV + ERV + RV
Total lung capacity
What lung volume is equal to IC - TV?
inspiratory reserve volume
What lung volume is equal to FRC - ERV?
What lung volume is equal to TV + IRV?
What lung capacity is equal to the volume of air remaining in lungs after normal exhalation?
functional residual capacity
What lung capacity is equal to the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation?
expiratory reverse volume
What lung capacity is equal to the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum exhalation?
What lung capacity is equal to IC-IRV?
A 32-year-old man presented to the emergency room with a pneumothorax. The right lung was collapsed, but the left lung was still inflated. Explain.
Since each lung is in a separate pleural cavity, the collapse of one lung does not affect the other lung.
How does a pneumothorax affect lung volume and alveolar pressure when inspiratory muscles contract? How does this affect air flow?
A lung with a pneumothorax does not inflate because the intrapleural pressure is no longer subatmospheric. The lung is not held tightly against the thoracic wall and does not inflate.
The Valsalva maneuver is forced exhalation against a closed glottis. How would you demonstrate the Valsalva maneuver using the model lung?
3. Hold your finger over the "trachea" of the bell jar and push the "diaphragm" upward.
A 42-year-old woman is breathing rapidly and deeply after excercise. Indicate whether each of the following volumes increass, decreases, or stays the same when compared to resting volumes. RV
4. stays the same
A 42-year-old woman is breathing rapidly and deeply after excercise. Indicate whether each of the following volumes increass, decreases, or stays the same when compared to resting volumes. TV
A 42-year-old woman is breathing rapidly and deeply after excercise. Indicate whether each of the following volumes increass, decreases, or stays the same when compared to resting volumes. IRV
Women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries wore whalebone corsets that severely restricted the respiratory and digestive systems. These corsets were worn to have a wasp-like waist. It was quite common for these women to faint-- in fact, they had "fainting couches." Explain the physiological reason for their fainting problems.
9. With the respiratory system severely restricted, the women could not inhale sufficient air. This resulted in hypoventilation, increased carbon dioxide, and increased hydrogen ions. The increased hydrogen ions depressed the breathing rate and insufficient oxygen reached the brain, causing fainting.
When someone is hyperventilating, they are told to breather into a paper bag or into their cupped hands. (a) Explain why this increase blood carbon dioxide levels. (b) What will this do to the breathing rate?
10. a) They are rebreathing exhaled air that has a higher carbon dioxide content and this increases the blood carbon dioxide levels.
b) Hyperventilation causes a flushing out of carbon dioxide from the blood. Since breathing is dependent on the carbon dioxide level, breathing generally returns to normal when the carbon dioxide level returns to normal.
Urine-forming structure of the kidney
Region of the kidney deep to cortex; contains collecting duct
Extensions of renal cortex found in between renal pyramids
Urine flowing through this structure drains into a minor calyx
Located between renal fascia and renal capsule
Apex of renal pyramid
Urine flowing through this structure drains into the renal pelvis
Vertical fissure in concave surface of kidney through which blood vessels and ureters pass
Covers the outer surface of kidney
Dense irregular connective tissue that covers the adipose capsule and attaches the kidney to the abdominal wall
Receives urine from the major calyces
Space within kidney that is adjacent to renal medulla, contains calyces and renal pelvis
Cup-like structure that is located in renal sinus that receives urine from openings of papillary ducts
Cone-shaped structures located within the renal medulla
Outermost region of the kidney, contains renal corpuscles
Detrusor muscle is the main muscle for this structure.
Region of the male urethra that passes through the prostate gland
Two openings in posterior urinary bladder
Region of male urethra that passes through penis
spongy or penile urethra
Area bounded by ureteral openings and internal urethral orifice
Voluntary skeletal muscle in urogenital diaphragm that allows passage of urine from the urinary bladder to urethra
external urethral sphincter
Carries urine from renal pelvis to urinary bladder
Urine is excreted through this opening.
external urethral oriface
Circular smooth muscle that involuntarily controls passage of urine from the uinary bladder to the urethra
internal urethral sphincter
Anterior opening in uinary bladder that leads into urethra
internal urethral oriface
Region of male urethra that passes through urogenital diaphragm
Blood vessel that delivers blood to glomerulus
Blood from the efferent arteriole flows into this capillary bed
peritubular capillary bed
structure that surrounds glomerulus and collects filtrate
glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
Section of renal tubule that descends into medulla
loop of Henle
capillary network within the renal corpuscle
structure composed of glomerulus and glomerular capsule
blood vessel that drains blood from glomerulus
Capillary loops that extend from the efferent arteriole and run along loop of Henle (nephron loop) of juxtamedullary nephrons
Trace the flow of filtrate and urine through the urinary system. Start with the glomerulus.
2. capsular space
4. loop of Henle
6. collecting duct
7. papillary duct
8. minor calyx
9. major calyx
10. renal pelvis
12. urinary bladder
14. external urethral oriface
Trace blood flow through the kidneys. Start at the renal artery.
1. renal artery
2. segmental artery
3. interlobar artery
4. arcuate artery
5. interlobular artery
6. afferent arteriole
8. efferent arteriole
9. peritubular capillary
10. interlobular vein
11. arcuate vein
12. interlobar vein
13. renal vein
Explain why pregnancy increases the frequency of urination.
As the baby grows larger, s/he pushes on the superior part of the urinary bladder, making urination more frequent.
Epithelial cells that reabsorn solutes are cuboidal but epithelial cells involved in filtration are thin, squamous cells. The cuboidal cells contain more cytoplasm and organelles, especially mitichondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), than the squamous cells. Why do the cuboidal cells of the kidney tubules need more mitochondria and RER?
They need more mitochondria to provide ATP for active transport involved in secretion and absorption. The RER synthesizes membrane proteins required for transport of substances across renal tubules.
Define Ptosis of the kidney
Ptosis of the kidney is a condition where the kidneys drop to a lower position. Ptosis may be caused by extreme weight loss, resulting in a decrease in the adipose capsule that holds the kidneys in a normal position.
Define incontinence and describe how this situation would be different in a child under 2 years old versus in an adult.
Incontinence is the inability to voluntarily control micturition or voiding. Incontinence in a child under 2 is normal because the child has not learned how to control the external urethral sphincter. Incontinence in an adult is abnormal. An example is stress incontinence, a condition where an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, which can occur during laughing or coughing, pushes a small amount of urine through the external urethral sphincter.
Reabsorption of an additional 15% of water by osmosis. Impermeable to solutes.
descending limb of the Loop of Henle
The last reabsorption of sodium and chloride and secretion of potassium. Hormones determine if urine is concentrated.
Filters blood and forms filtrate
Reabsorption of majority of water and solutes from filtrate by active and passive processes. Also secretion occurs here.
proximal convoluted tubule
Reabsorption of more sodium, chloride, and about 10 to 15% more water.
distal convoluted tubule
Reabsorption of sodium and chloride decreases the osmolarity of filtrate. Nearly impermeable to water.
ascending limb of the Loop of Henle
Hormone that increases sodium and chloride ion reabsorption and potassium secretion.
Process of moving substances from renal tubule into the peritubular capillary
ADH acts mainly at this portion of the nephron
Process of moving substances from the peritubular capillary into renal tubule
Process occuring across wall of glomerular capillary and visceral layer of glomerular capsule
The act of voiding (emptying) the urinary bladder
Hormone that increases water reabsorption in the late distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
What is the normal volume of urine output per day in an adult?
One to two liters per 24 hours.
What is the normal color of urine?
Yellow or amber
What could make urine be cloudy?
An infection caused by microbes
What is the normal specific gravity of urine?
1.001 - 1.035
What makes urine have a higher specific gravity than distilled water?
Name 5 normal solutes found in urine.
6. electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, and other ions), urea, creatine, uric acid, metabolic end products
Normal urine contains __________% water and ___________% solutes.
7. 95% water and 5% solutes
Is normal daytime urine output dilute or concentrated?
8. It depends on the amount of fluids taken in during the day. If fluid intake is adequate, normal daytime urine should be more dilute than urine output immediately after awakening.
What is the normal pH of urine?
9. 4.6 - 8.0
What is pyuria?
10. White blood cells in the urine
What is ketonuria?
11. Ketone bodies in the urine
What is hematuria?
12. Red blood cells in urine
What is glucosuria?
13. Presence of glucose in urine
Explain how a kidney stone blocking urine flow through the ureter eventuallty may decrease filtrate formation in the glomerular capsule.
Urine will back up in the tubules of the nephron and eventually will cause a high capsular hydrostatic pressure that will oppose the blood hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus, causing a decrease in filtrate formation.
Explain how inflammation of the glomerular capsule causes hematuria.
2. The visceral layer of the glomerular capsule and the glomerulus each consist of a single layer of simple squamous epithelium. Once these cells become inflamed the barrier becomes more permeable, and blood will cross into the capsular space.
Compare the contends of the filtrate in the glomerular capsule and the contents of urine in the renal pelvis.
3. Filtrate in the glomerular capsule has all of the filtered solutes that are in the blood minus large proteins and formed elements. The renal pelvis contains urine.
Indicate whether each of the following volumes increass, decreases, or stays the same when compared to resting volumes. ERV
A 5-year old child announces to her parents (former A & P students) that she is going to hold her breath until she is allows to watch more television. The parents are not worried. (a) Explain why the parents are not worried. (b) Explain how the child's blood carbon dioxide levels and blood hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion levels change while she is holding her breath.
The parents know that if she holds her breath and passes out, the respiratory center will resume a normal breathing pattern.
What is the flow of blood in pulmonary circulation (from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart)?
right side of the heart, superior and inferior vena cavae, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, mitral (bicuspid valve), the left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, veins and heart.