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Peritonitis

acute inflammation of the peritoneum

Mumps

inflammation and enlargement of the parotid glans accompanied by moderate fever, malaise and extreme pain in the throat.

Root canal therapy

multistep procedure in which all traces of pulp tissue are removed from the pulp cavity and root canals of a badly diseased tooth.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

lower esophageal sphincter fails to close adequately after food has entered the stomach, the stomach contants can reflux (back up) into the inferior portion of the esophagus.

Heart burn

hydrochloric acid from the stomach contents can irritate the esophageal wall, resulting in a burning sensation.

Pylorospasm

the smooth muscle fibers of the sphincter fail to relax normally, so food does not pass easily from the stomach to the small intestine, the stomach becomes overly full, and the infant vomits to relieve the pressure.

Pyloric Stenosis

narrowing of the pyloric sphincter the must be corrected surgically.

Vomiting (emesis)

forcible expulsion of the contents of the upper GI tract throught the mouth.

Pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

acute pancreatitis

associated with heavy alcohol intake. The pancreatic cells may release either trypsin instead of trypsinogen or insufficient amounts of trypsin inhibitor, and the trypsin begins to digest the pancreatic cells.

Pancreatic cancer

affects people over the age of 50 and males more frequently. Cancer of the Pancreas

Jaundice

yellowish coloration of the sclerae, skin, and mucous membranes due to a buildup of a yellow compound called bilirubin.

Liver function tests

blood tests designed to determine the presence of certain chemicals released by liver cells.

gallstones

cholesterol that crystalizes because bile contains either infsufficient bile salts or lecithin or excessive cholesterol.

cholesystectomy

the removal of the gall bladder and its contents

lactose intolerance

undigested lactose in chyme casues fluid to be retained in the feces; bacterial fermantation of the undigested lactose results in the production of gases.

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

polyps

slow-developing genign growths that arise from the mucosa of the large intestine.

occult blood

blood that is hidden; it is not detectable by the human eye.

dietary fiber

indigestible plant carbohydrates, such as cellulose, lignin, and pectin-found in fruits vegetables, grains and beans

insouble fiber

does not disolve in water, passes through unchanged. Skins of fruit, wheat and corn kernels.

soluble fiber

does dissolve in water. Forms a gel that slows the passage of material through the tract. Found in beans, oats, broccoli, apples and citrus fruits.

achalasia

a condition caused by malfunction of the myenteric plexus in which the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax normally as food approaches

bariatric surgery

a surgical procedure that limits the amount of food that can be ingested and absorbed in order to bring about a significant weight loss in obese individuals.

borborygmus

a rumbling noise caused by the propulsion of gas through the intestine

canker sore

a painful ulser on the mucous membrane of the mouth that affects females more than males.

cirrhosis

distorted or scarred liver as a result of chronic inflammation due to hepatitis, chemicals that destroy hepatocytes, parasites that infect the liver, or alcoholism.

colitis

inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and rectum

colonoscopy

the visual examination of the lining of the colon using an elongated, flexible fiber-optic endoscope.

colostomy

the diversion of feces through an opening in the colon.

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

flatus

air in the stomach or intestine, usually expelled through the anus.

eructation

gas expelled through the mouth

burping

another name for eructation

food poisoning

a suden illness caused by ingesting food or drink contaminated by an infectious microbe or toxin

gastoenteritis

inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestine.

gastroscopy

endoscopic examination of the stomach in which the examiner can view the interior of the stomach directly.

halitosis

foul odor coming from the mouth, also called bad breath.

hemorrhoids

vericosed superior rectal veins.

hernia

protrusion of all or part of an organ through a membrane or cavity wall.

inflammatory bowel disease

inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.

crohn's disease

inflammation of any part of the gastrointestinal tract in which the inflammation extends from the mucosa through the submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.

Ulcerative colitis

inflammation of the mucosa of the colon and rectum, usually accompanied by rectal bleeding.

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

disease of the entire gastrointestinal tract in which a person reacts to stress by developing sysmptoms associated with alternating patterns of diarrhea and constipation.

irritalbe colon

another name for irritable bowel syndrome

spastic colitis

another name for irritable bowel syndrome

Malabsorption

a number of disorders in which nutrients from food are not absorbed properly.

malocclusion

condition in which the furfaces fo the maxillary and mandibular teeth fit poorly.

nausea

discomfort characterized by a loss of appetite and the sensation of impending vomiting

traveler's diarrhea

infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract that results in loose, urgent bowel movements. Acquired by ingestion of food or water contaminated with fecal matter.

acidosis

an abnormally low blood ph

ketoacidosis

an abnormally low blood ph

phenylketonuria (PKU)

genetic error of protein matabolism characterized by elevated blood levels of the amino acid phenylaline.

hypothermia

a lowering of the core temperature to 35c or 95F or below.

emotional eating

eating in response to emotional drives, such as feeling bored, stressed, or tired.

hypervitaminosis

dietary intake of a vitamin that exceeds the ability of the body to utilize, store, and excrete the vitamin.

hypovitaminosis

vitamin deficiency.

Bulimia

overeating at least twice a week followed by induces vomiting, strict dieting, fasting, vigorous exercise, use of laxitives or diuretics.

heat cramps

cramps that result from profuse sweating

heat exhaustion

core temperature is generally normal, or below and the skin is moist due to profuse perspiration.

heatstroke

caused by exposure to high temperatures , especially when the relative humidity is high., making it difficult for the body to loose heat.

kwashiorkor

a disorder in which protein intake is deficient despite normal or nearly normal choloric intake.

malnutrition

an imbalance of total caloric intake or inake of specific nutrients, which can be either inadequate or excessive.

marasmus

a type of protein-calorie undernutrition that results from inadequate intake of both protein and calories.

Nephroptosis (floating kidney)

inferior displacement or dropping of the kidney

kidney transplant

transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient whose kidneys no longer function.

glucosuria

glucose remains in the urine

diuretics

substances that slow renal reabsorption of water and cause elevated urine flow which reduces blood volume.

dialysis

cleaning the blood artificially

hemodialysis

filter the patients blood.

peritoneal dialysis

peritoneum of the abdominal cavity is used as the dialysis membrane to filter the blood.

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

peritoneal dialysis done at home.

cystoscope

direct examination fo the mucosa of the urethra and urinary bladder and prostate in males.

urinary incontinence

lack of voluntary control over micturition

stress incontinence

common type in females results from the weakness of the deep muscles of the pelvic floor.

urge incontinence

most common in older people. Abrupt and intense urge to urinate followed by a involuntary loss of urine.

overflow incontinence

involunary leakage of small amounts of urine caused by blockage or weak contractions of the urinary bladder.

functional incontinence

urine loss resulting from the inability to get to a toilet facility in time as a result of stroke, arthritis or alzheimer disease.

Azotemia

presence of urea or other nitrogen containing substances in the blood

cystocele

hernia of the urinary bladder

diabetic kidney disease

caused by diabetes melitus in which glomeruli are damaged.

dysuria

painful urination

enuresis

involuntary voiding of urine after the age at which voluntary control has typically been attained.

hydronephrosis

swelling of the kidney due to dilation of renal pelvis and calyces as a result of an obstruction to the flow of urine.

nephropathy

any disease of the kidneys

nocturnal enuresis

discharge of urine during sleep.

nocturia

same as nocturnal enuresis

polyuria

excessive urine formation

stricture

narrowing of the lumen of a canal or hollow organ.

uremia

toxic levels of urea in the blood as a result of malfunction of the kindeys.

urinary retention

a failure to completely or normally void urine.

Dental Caries

tooth decay

Dextran

causes dental carries, a sticky polysaccharide produced from sucrose.

Dental Plaque

masses of bacterial cells, dextran, and other debris adhering to teeth.

Periodontal Disease

variety of conditions characterized by inflammation and degeneration of the gingivae, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum.

Pyorrhea

inlargement and inflammation of the soft tissue and bleeding of the gums.

Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD)

ulcer that develops in the GI tract

Ulcer

a createrlike lesion in a membrane

Peptic Ulcer

ulcers that develop in areas of the GI tract exposed to acidic gastric juice.

Diverticular Disease

saclike outpouching of the wall of the colon and become inflammed.

Diverticula

saclike outpouching of the wall of the colon

Diverticulosis

development of diverticula

Diverticulitis

inflammation of the diverticulata

Colorectal Cancer

deadliest of malignancies.

Hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

Piles

another name for Hemorrhoids

Spasitic Colon

irritable bowel syndrome

Carbohydrate Loading

eating large amounts of complex carbohydrates before an event

Anorexia Nervosa

a chronic disorder characterized by self-induced weight loss, negative perception of body image, and physiological changes that result from nutritional depletion.

Fever

elevation of core temperature caused by resetting of the hypothalmic thermostat.

Pyrogen

a fever-producing substance

Chill

skin remains cold, and shivering occurs

Crisis

skin becomes warm and the person begins to sweat. Pahse of the fever that indicates that core temperature is falling.

Obesity

body weight more than 20% above a desired standard due to an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue.

Renal Calculi

the crystals of salts present in urine occasionally precipitate and solidify into soluble stones

Shock wave Lithotripsy

procedure that uses high-energy shock waves to disintegrate kidney stones .

Tract Infection (UTI)

infection of a part of the urinary system or the presence of large number of microbes in the urine.

Glomerular Diseases

conditions that damage the kidney glomeruli.

Glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the kidney that involves the glomeruli

Nephrotic Syndrome

condition characterized by proteinuria and hyperlipidemia.

Acute Renal Failure (ARF)

renal failure is a decrease or cessation of glomerular filtration.

Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)

procressive and usually irreversible decline in glomerular filtration rate.

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

kidney tubules become riddled with hundreds or thousands of cysts.

Urinary Bladder Cancer

strikes over 50 years of age and is three times more likely to develop in males than females.

Intravenoius Pylelogram

radiograph of the kidneys, ureters, and urinary bladder after venous injection of a radiopaque contrast medium.

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