Human-induced changes on the natural environment.
the science of making maps.
the study of the interactions between societies and the natural environments they live in
the human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society
Earth System Science
the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography".
Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C.
Geographical Information Systems
A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.
Global Positioning System
A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on the earth's surface with a portable electronic device.
pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place
George Perkins Marsh
his classic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions. and was the first enviormentalist
The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally
he claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions; the earth-science tradition, the culture-enviroment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analyis tradition
where and why natural forces occur as they do.
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.
The study of geographic regions.
Observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images.
coined the term natural landscape.
Sense of Place
Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.
An intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific events, how and why that event is , and, finally, how it is spatially related to event in other place
The concept of using the earth's resources in such they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing ability to provide for future generations.
The study of the earth's integrated systems as a whole, instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single place.
Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.
an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
the exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place.
A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface.
the outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
A map on which statistical information is shown in diagrammatic form.
A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent data as average values per unit area.
A mental representation of one's physical environment.
The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place.
A standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface
Distance Decay Effect
The decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases.
Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births.
The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions--north, south, east, and west--no longer have any meaning.
The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north-south circumference.
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening. Hazards are usually avoided in spatial behavior.
A type of diffuson in which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common.
International Date Line
the line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
The idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods or services. Intervening opportunities are frequently utilized because transportation costs usually decrease with proximity.
map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large Scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels.
Law of Retail Gravitation
Law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them.
On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction.
The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians.
A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape.
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized.
A line of longitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles.
An east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator.
Peters Map Projection
a cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
A map that displays individual preferences for certain places.
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude.
Proportional Symbols Map
A thematic map in which the size of a choseR symbol-such as a circle or triangle-indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region.
A map type that shows reference information for a particula: place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating.
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
the position of a place in relation to another place
the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration
A map's smallest discernable unit
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface.
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.
Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.
Spatial diffusion refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
when a trait of one culture prompts invention or innovation in another
A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. If you took a topographic map out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on your map, you would always stay at the same elevation.
The amount of connectivity between places, regardless of the absolute distance separating them.
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive.