Stock Market Crash 1929
In 1929, the stock market crashed and caused a world wide Depression. As early as March the stock market had mini-crashes, signaling something was seriously wrong. In October 1929, on Black Friday it crashed. The Thursday before 12 mil. stocks had changed hands. The full devestation was not fully realized until the following Tuesday.
Run on the banks
when a large number of people try to take all of their money out of the banks at once
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
2nd New Deal
legislative program focusing on reform begun by FDR in 1935 when the first attempt to end the Depression failed
Truman's Fair Deal
In United States history, the _____ was U.S. President Harry S Truman's policy of social improvement, outlined in his 1949 State of the Union Address to Congress on January 5, 1949. Truman stated that "Every segment of our population, and every individual, has a right to expect from his government a fair deal." He was unable to pass any major part through Congress. Only one of his Fair Deal bills, an initiative to expand unemployment benefits, was ever enacted.
The Taft-Hartley Act
Legislation passed in 1947, which banned boycotts that did not target a company, mass picketing, and sympathy strikes for other unions.
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
An act passed in 1935 gave government-payed pensions to American citizens over the age 65 as well as provided help for the unemployed, the disabled, and the needy.
Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
camps built outside of major cities by people who had lost their homes during the great depression called ________ because the people blamed pre. hoover foe their situition
National Industrial Recovery Act was designed to reduce unemployment by asking employers to spread work out as much as possible. National Recovery Administration asked industry to reduce competition and to regulate wages and hours. Labor was granted the right to organize and bargain collectively. Declared unconstitutional in 1935.
attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
____: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
___: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
The ______ federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
project as part of a massive public-works program; brought much needed employment to Southwest
Economic theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
Works Progress Administration (1935)- Relief- Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during World War II.
FDR and the 1937 recession
rehiring 1.5 million people back to the Works Progress Administration, pumping $3 billion in direct relief into the economy
in the decade after WWI, American foreign policy objectives were aimed at maintaining peace and have been described as "independent internationalism" (Kellogg-Briand Pact, Good Neighbor Policy); began when Germany invaded Poland; US became involved when Pearl Harbor was bombed by Japan; FDR signed the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which was the first peacetime draft; internment of Japanese Americans; at Yalta, land was split up between the Allies; the beginning of the USSR's dominance
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Cash and Carry/Lend Lease
Cash and carry: (1939) Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships.
Lend lease: Allows America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war
America's First Committee
the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. delay the passage of lend-lease and keep the Roosevelt administration from obtaining its goals without opposition for almost two years. Led by Charles A Lindbergh (pro monroe doctrine)
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
When FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet; they agreed to wage war on Japan, to divide Germany into 4 equal parts, on the big 5's veto, and to hold free elections for the liberated countries
the place at which the three allied leaders, Truman, Stalin, and Atlee, met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender
The meeting place of Roosevelt and Churchill where they decided to not surrender until the Axis surrendered unconditionally
information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc.
Americans were asked to grow their own food during WWII to help with the war effort by planting in backyards, school yards, city parks and empty lots. Government promoted by praising them in film reels, pamphlets, and official statements.
Zoot Suit Riots
In the 1940's - Riots that occurred mostly in Los Angeles, CA between white marines and young Mexican Americans. White marines thought that the dress of "zoot suits" of the Mexican Americans was un-patriotic, although about 300,000 Mexican Americans were in the armed forces. Some Mexicans thought that they would be the next "Japanese" and be taken to camps.
Rosie the Riveter
A cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in factories during World War II, many of whom worked in the manufacturing plants that produced munitions and war supplies. These women sometimes took entirely new jobs replacing the male workers who were in the military. The character is considered a feminist icon in the U.S.
Movement between 1915 - 1940 of millions of African Americans to the north in search of work and fair treatment.
A Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
Executive Order 9066
2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
Korematsu vs. USA
Supreme Court decision of 1944 that upheld the president's authority to sequester several thousand Japanese and Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II (2)
First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
Start of Cold War
-1947 to 1991
- Soviet did not turn over Berlin to the rest of the allies-- Berlin was divided into 4 sections.
- turned into a race against United Sates and the Soviet with Nuclear Arms race(scare) and The space race.
Taft Hartley Act
(HT) 1947, , The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947. When it was passed by Congress, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. The act forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party. This aspect of the act was upheld by the Supreme Court on 8th May, 1950.
Truman's extension of the New Deal that increased min wage, expanded Social Security, and constructed low-income housing
NATO and Warsaw Pact
NATO is North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which consists of the Neterlands, France, Italy, Canada, and Great Britain, and they formed a military alliance to protect each other from the Soviet aggression in 1949. In 1955, a similar military alliance was formed by Soviet Union with countries such as Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary and is known as the Warsaw Treaty Organization, or the Warsaw Pact.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives. The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People's Republic of China came to North Korea's aid. After more than a million combat casualties had been suffered on both sides, the fighting ended in July 1953 with Korea still divided into two hostile states. Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea.
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda, and searched out communism.
ten Hollywood screen writers, actors, etc accused of being communist; were blacklisted and refused to cooperate with HUAC; sent to jail
Husband and wife tried/excuted for treason under suspicion of communist influence and trading atomic bomb secrets with the Soviet Union