Chief Justice of the United States from 1953-1969, former Republican governor of California whose rulings affected, among other things, the legal status of racial segregation, civil rights, separation of church and state, reapportionment of electoral districts, and police arrest procedures
Thurgood Marshall -
Represented the NAACP in the Brown v Board of Education case. He made many contributions to the civil rights movement.
an American minister and civil rights leader who was active in the struggle for civil rights for African Americans from the 1920s
Martin Luther King -
Pastor elected to lead the Montgomery Improvement Association to run the boycott and to negotiate with city leaders for an end to segregation. He encouraged non-violent protests. Thought all whites were good people, but they were misleaded. He encouraged people to disobey unjust laws.
Rosa Parks -
Made her decision to challenge segregation of public transportation. She wasn't actually planning on not moving; she was just tired.
Medger Evers -
Organizer of the NAACP in Mississippi. His assassination sped up the process of the voting of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
- Leader of Core
James Meredith -
He was the guy who applied to the University of Mississippi, but the governor of Mississippi (Rick Barnett) got in his way. He eventually was let into the university, but had to be escorted. There were a lot of mob attacks because of his entry into the college.
Malcolm X -
Became the symbol of the black power movement that was sweeping the nation. He joined the Nation of Islam. He thought that African Americans may have been victims in the past, but they did not have to allow racism to victimize them in the present.
Stokely Carmichael -
The leader of SNCC. He thought that the term Black Power meant that African Americans should control the social, political, and economic direction of their struggle.
Eugene "Bill" Connor
Public Safety Commissioner who had arranged the attack on the Freedom Riders. He ran for mayor. He responded to the protests after king was released by using force, high pressure fire hoses on the demonstrators, including women and children. This lead to Kennedy ordering his aides to prepare a new civil rights bill. (Basically, he was a dick).
Orval Faubus -
Governor of Arkansas who was believed to be moderate on racial issues, unlike many other southern politicians. He was determined to win reelection, so he began to campaign as a defender of white supremacy. He ordered troops from the Arkansas National Guard to prevent 9 black students from entering the school. A mob happened, and instead of ending the mobs, he left the school to the mob. This pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point, and the kids ended up being able to go to the school.
George Wallace -
Alabama's governor who was committed to segregation. He stood in front of the University of Alabama admissions office to block the enrollment of 2 blacks, he stayed there until he was ordered to leave.
James Earl Ray -
Little Rock Central HS
- The school won a court order to admit 9 black students where there were 2,000 white students. An angry white mob went to protest the enrollment and planned to intimate the black students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower to order the U.S. Army to send troops to Little Rock. After they arrived, the black people walked into the high school.
North Carolina Sit in
At a Woolworths in North Carolina. It began with 4 students who were disgusted with segregation and discrimination against Blacks. The 4 students decided to take action in a new way (sit in). The movement brought large numbers of idealistic and energized college students into the civil rights struggle. It offered students who became discouraged by the slow pace of desegregation a chance to take matters into their own hands in a peaceful but powerful way. Their peaceful and heroic behavior contrasted with the violence and anger they faced, grabbed the nation's attention.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
- Leader of the Women's Political Council called on African American's to boycott Montgomery's buses on the day Rosa Parks appeared in court. It was a great success, after that several Black leaders formed the Montgomery Improvement Association to run the boycott. They elected MLK to lead them. It lasted over a year. Instead of riding the bus, they organized car pools or walked to work. They remained peaceful and nonviolent. It led to the Supreme Court declaring Alabama's laws requiring segregation on buses to be unconstitutional.
March On Washington -
MLK and the SNCC organized a march for freedom from Selma to the state capitol in Montgomery. Many people were beaten which became known as Bloody Sunday. The nation was stunned as it viewed the shocking footage. When President Johnson saw the events he became furious and took action. He appeared on TV to propose a new voting rights law.
- The starting point of the March on Washington
Five days after Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act, a race riot broke out in Watts. Watts is a black neighborhood in LA. They killed people, injured people, and destroyed property. This lead to the Kerner Commission.
Freedom Riders -
Crossed a state line which means that the federal jurisdiction makes the laws. They rode the bus and say wherever they wanted until they got to Alabama, and Kentucky. They deliberately broke the laws so that the federal people could come. They protested the South's refusal to integrate bus terminals.
Rolling Churches -
Carpools, way of getting around during the boycott
Jim Crow -
statutes or laws created to enforce segregation
De Jure Segregation -
By law Segregation (segregation that is imposed by law)
De Facto Segregation -
people chose not to live in certain areas (they weren't forced to leave) (segregation by choice)
Passive Resistance -
not fighting back
active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government, was encouraged by MLK.
advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. Black separatism (or Black Nationalism) is a reaction to slavery in the United States and has been advanced by black leaders like Marcus Garvey and the Nation of Islam. Critical race theorists like New York University's Derrick Bell and University of Colorado's Richard Delgado argue the American legal, education and political party systems are rife with racism. They support efforts like all-black schools and dorms and question the efficacy of government-enforced integration.
Plessey v Ferguson -
The Supreme Court declared segregation constitutional in this case when it established the "separate but equal" doctrine. Laws segregating blacks were permitted as long as equal facilities were provided for them
Separate but equal
- Established after the Plessey v Ferguson case. It said that laws segregating blacks were permitted as long as equal facilities were provided for them
political arguments that focus upon the self-interest and perspectives of self-identified social interest groups and ways in which people's politics may be shaped by aspects of their identity through race, class, religion, gender, sexual orientation or traditional dominance. Not all members of any given group are necessarily involved in identity politics. Minority influence is a central component of identity politics. Minority influence is a form of social influence which takes place when a majority is being influenced to accept the beliefs or behavior of a minority. Unlike other forms of influence this usually involves a personal shift in private opinion. This personal shift in opinion is called conversion. This type of influence is most likely to take place if the minority is consistent, flexible and appealing to the majority (Favoring the minority).
Examined to see if someone was actually being discriminatory against someone else. (If someone accused someone else of discriminating against them, MLK would look into it to see if they were actually being discriminatory).
They would negotiate with the accused person to try and convince him to stop being discriminatory.
Shaming someone. Publicizing that the person is being discriminatory. Publicizing isn't good (it makes the person look really bad)
Boycotting someone's business so that people know that the owner of the business is being discriminatory.
Wanted to end segregation through courts. Provided free legal service for anyone wanting to challenge discrimination laws. Organized by Medger Evers.
Headed by MLK. All of the pastors of different Baptists churches in the South were a part of it. Church was important in the South if you were black because it was where you would go and be safe (nothing would happen to you, no one would hurt you if you were in church). The organization wanted to end Jim Crow laws in Alabama. It was an organization of all the pastors to join king in his effort to do the Montgomery bus boycott. MLK thought that you should make the whites come face-face with their conscience. set out to eliminate segregation from American society and to encourage African Americans to register to vote
Student non-violent coordinating committee. Got a voting bloc. Passive Resistance.played a key role in the desegregation of public facilities in dozens of Southern communities. It also began sending volunteers into rural areas in the Deep South to register African Americans to vote.
Wanted to end segregation through federal level. They tried to create a federal statute. There were the freedom riders who got on busses in NY to ride to Mississippi. Led by John Lewis. used sit-ins in attempt to desegregation restaurants that refused to serve African Americans. They successfully integrated many restaurants, theaters, and other public facilities.
Brown v Board of Ed
Start of civil rights; end segregation. Important because it was a unanimous 9-0 vote against segregation. Supreme Court case pushed by the NAACP that unanimously ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Said you can't discriminate on another person based on race, color, creed, or gender. The Birmingham riots, the assassination of Medger Evers, the march on Washington, and the MLK speech sped up the vote.
created after the riots starting in Watts. It was created to figure out the reason for the riots (there were rights in the north, west, east, but not the south. Why?) The reason was that they were rebelling against the economics. They didn't have riots in the south because you get mad when someone has something you don't have. White flight was when whites moving to the suburbs because they had money because they were paid more. When they left the cities they also took their money.
made money available to cities (urban renewal). Equality in hiring and admission. Said if you receive any federal money when it comes to hiring, minorities must be represented. Many people thought it was the tie breaker
Voting Rights Act
Authorized the attorney general to send federal examiners to register qualified votes bypassing local officials who often refused to register African Americans. It also suspended discriminatory devices such as literacy tests and poll taxes.
Assassination of MLK
James Earl Ray assassinated King while he was standing on his hotel balcony in Memphis. His death marked the end of and era in American history but he left behind a civil movement that transformed American society.
Party that believed that a revolution was necessary in the Us and they urged African Americans to arm themselves and confront white society in order to force whites to grant them equal rights. They called for black empowerment and to end racial oppression.
Nation of Islam
Lead by Malcolm X and preached Black Nationalism. They believed that African Americans should separate themselves from whites and form their own government.
SNCC to Black Panthers
Leader of the SNCC (stokely Carmichael) left the SNCC to go join the Black Panther party. The new leader was expuled.
organization formed for civil rights regarding living conditions. De jure segreagation. They noticed that the economies of de facto segregation were different. They felt the cities should do something about it.