Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Congress of Berlin
(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schlieffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
The "majority" - Communist party led by Lenin. Although they were not the majority and actually received a terrible percentage of the Russian Congress's vote, Lenin kept the name to create attraction and support. After the Russian Congress received the low voting, the Bolsheviks and Lenin took over and simply disregarded the Russian Congress from there on out.
First Balkan War
1912 -Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory--a dispute that led in 1913 to the Second Balkan War
agreement between Germany and Russia that stipulated that each power would maintain neutrality should the other find itself at war.
International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.
Britain allied with Japan, then turned to France. Goal was to further alienate Germany
"Third Balkan War"
leaders of Austro-Hungary conlcuded that Serbia needed to be punished once and for all after assasinating Ferdinand and presented Serbia with an unconditional ultimatum where they had 48 to agree on the demands for ceding Serbia; Serbia replied moderately/evasively to Austria mobilized and declared war on Serbia
Auxiliary Service Law
A German law requiring all males between the ages of seventeen and sixty to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort.
Modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905, the _________ was a huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two thousand to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals. Seeing itself as a true grassroots revolutionary democracy, this counter- or half-government suspiciously watched the provisional government and issued its own radical orders, further weakening the provisional government.
Petrograd bread riots
On March 8, International Women's day, women textile workers poured into the streets shouting "Bread!" Other Petrograd workers quickly joined and within two days over 200,000 strikers brought everyday life to a standstill. After being informed of the mounting chaos in the capital, Nicholas II telegraphed back that order should be restored. The city's military commander ordered police and troops to disperse demonstrators, shooting at them if necessary. But after some shooting, the key turning point occurred. Soldiers in one regiment after another refused to simply with orders and instead joined the demonstrators. After realizing he had lost control of Petrograd and the support of key military and political leaders, Nicholas II abdicated the throne on March 15.
Congress of the Soviets
The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, several other Soviet republics from 1917 to 1936 and the legislative branch of the USSR until 1936
The Kiel mutiny was a major mutiny by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet on 29 October 1918. The mutiny triggered the German revolution which was to sweep aside the monarchy within a few days. It ultimately led to the end of the First World War and to the establishment of the Weimar Republic.
Army Order No. 1
a radical order of the Petrograd soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
a freely elected assembly promised by the Bolsheviks, but permanently disbanded after one day(January 18,1918) under Lenins orders after the Bolsheviks won less than one fourth of the elected delegates.
The officers of the old army took the lead in organizing the so-called White opposition to the Bolsheviks in southern Russia, Ukraine, Siberia and west of Petrograd. The whites came from many social groups and were united only by their hatred of the Bolsheviks-the reds. It caused the Russian civil war. (914)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Battle of the Marne
A major French victory against the invading German army at the start of WWI. In reality lost Germany the war.
Battles of the Somme and Verdun
In the Battle of Somme in the summer of 1916, the British and French lost 600,000 soldiers for 125 square miles while the Germans lost 500,000 men. That same year, the unsuccessful German campaign against Verdun cost 700,000 lives on both sides. (899)
Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes
Russia was pushing into eastern Germany, but these battles led to German victories. Russia was very badly damaged by the Germans in the Battles of Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes under Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff in August and September 1914. Russia never threatened Germany again. (909)
The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. The US Senate rejected it.
Three Emperors League
created in 1873- linked the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Russia in an alliance against radical movements
Lasting from 1899 to 1902, Dutch colonists and the British competed for control of territory in South Africa.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
Lawrence of Arabia
British military officer who incited the Arabs in Arabia to revolt against their Turkish lords
War Raw Materials Board
Masterminded by Walter Rathenau, this was set up by the German government to ration and distribute raw materials.
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Last Tsarist of Russia, had a son who was a hemophiliac, and was put under the influence of Rasputin, where he exploited her. Ended up causing the collapse of the Tsars
The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.
An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. He refused to confiscate land holdings and felt that continuation of war was most important.
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. THE Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
Russian army commander; Sent troops upon St Petersburg against gov't orders; Kerensky seeks help from Bolshevik's to fight off Russian army
Supporter of Lenin who helped in the takeover of Petrograd and the Bolshevik revolution
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
The German Revolution of November 1918 resembled the Russian Revolution of March 1917; however the moderate socialists and their liberal allies won in the German Revolution, and the Lenin-like radical revolutionaries in the councils lost.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
the prime minister of Great Britain; platform was to make the Germans pay for WWI (at the Paris Peace Conference)