The electrons in the outer energy level of an atom. They are the first to form bonds with other atoms. An atom has can have 1-8 of these.
A visual diagram of bonded atoms that shows how many valence electrons it has, and whether bonds are ionic or covalent.
The law of matter that states the outer energy level of an atom must be full when bonded with another. There are exceptions to the rule, as long as every electron is in a pair.
Noble gasses are described as having this quality because they do not regularly form bonds. The inability to experience a chemical change.
An atom with a positive charge, because it has lost electrons. Atoms in columns 1-4 can gain this charge.
An atom with a negative charge, that has gained electrons. Atoms in columns 4-7 can have this charge.
A bond formed by two atoms, one that shares single electrons from two atoms to form a pair. Occurs when two atoms electronegativity have a difference of 1.9 or less.
A covalent bond where the two atoms electronegativity difference is between .5 and 1.9. The atom with a higher electronegativity will have a slightly negative charge, while the atom with the lower will have a slightly positive charge. This is because the electrons are more attracted to the atom with the higher electronegativity.
A covalent bond where the atoms electronegativity differs from 0-0.4. They both have neutral charges, because the shared electrons spend an equal amount of time around each atom.
A covalent bond between two atoms where one pair of electrons is shared.
A covalent bond between two atoms where two pairs of electrons are shared.
A covalent bond between two atoms where three pairs of electrons are shared.
The higher this value, the stronger an atom attracts electrons. The difference in two atoms force of electron attraction determines what kind of bond they form.
Found in covalent bonds. Denoted by an arrow, used in a shared pair of electrons, and points towards the atom with the higher electronegativity. Signifies that electrons will spend more time around this atom.