Grammar: The First Declension of Nouns

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How many different terminations are found in the Nominative case of the First Declension?

Four: -a, -as, -es, -e

How are First Declension nouns with Nominative in -a declined? (long answer)

In the singular:
Nominative: -a
Genitive: -ae
Dative: -ae
Accusative: -am
Vocative: -a
Ablative: -a

In the plural:
Nominative: -ae
Genitive: -arum
Dative: -is
Accusative: -as
Vocative: -ae
Ablative: - is

Decline the First Declension noun haec Musa. (State case name, the Latin form and the English)

Singulariter:
Nominativo: haec Musa (a muse)
Genitivo: Musae (of a muse)
Dativo: Musae (to a muse)
Accusativo: Musam (a muse)
Vocativo: O Musa (O Muse)
Ablativo: a Musa (from a muse)

Pluraliter:
Nominativo: Musae (muses)
Genitivo: Musarum (of muses)
Dativo: Musis (to muses)
Accusativo: Musas (muses)
Vocativo: O Musae (O muses)
Ablativo: a Musis (from muses)

What is meant by the words of, to, O and from used when declining?

These words of, to, O, and from are signs of the cases with which they are joined, and are put to all Nouns.

Of - genitive case
To - dative case
O - vocative case
From - ablative case

The nominative and accusative cases are not known by signs, but by their position in a sentence.

How are First Declension nouns with Nominative in -as declined?

Nominative: -as
Genitive: -ae
Dative: -ae
Accusative: -am or -an
Vocative: -a
Ablative: -a

Plural:
Nominative: -ae
Genitive: -arum
Dative: -is
Accusative: -as
Vocative: -ae
Ablative: -is

Decline the First Declension noun hic Aeneas (State the case name, the Latin form and the English).

Singulariter:
Nominativo: hic Aeneas (Aeneas)
Genitivo: Aeneae (of Aeneas)
Dativo: Aeneae (to Aeneas)
Accusativo: Aeneam or Aenean (Aeneas)
Vocativo: O Aenea (O Aeneas)
Ablativo: ab Aenea (from Aeneas)

Pluraliter:
Nominativo: Aeneae
Genitivo: Aenearum
Dativo: Aeneis
Accusativo: Aeneas
Vocativo: O Aeneae
Ablativo: ab Aeneis

How are First Declension nouns with Nominative in -es declined?

Singular:
Nominative: -es
Genitive: - ae
Dative: -ae
Accusative: -en
Vocative: -e
Ablative: -e

Plural:
Nominative: -ae
Genitive: -arum
Dative: -is
Accusative: -as
Vocative: -ae
Ablative: -is

Decline the First Declension noun hic Anchises (State the case name, the Latin form and the English).

Singulariter:
Nominativo: hic Anchises (Anchises)
Genitivo: Anchisae (of Anchises)
Dativo: Anchisae (to Anchises)
Accusativo: Anchisen (Anchises)
Vocativo: O Anchise (O Anchises)
Ablative: ab Anchise (from Anchises)

Pluraliter:
Nominativo: Anchisae
Genitive: Anchisarum
Dativo: Anchisis
Accusativo: Anchisas
Vocativo: Anchisae
Ablative: Anchisis

How are First Declension nouns with Nominative in -e declined?

Nominative: -e
Genitive: -es
Dative: -e
Accusative: -en
Vocative: -e
Ablative: -e

Plural:
Nominative: -ae
Genitive: -arum
Dative: -is
Accusative: -as
Vocative: -ae
Ablative: -is

Decline the First Declension noun haec Penelope. (State the case name, the Latin form and the English.)

Singulariter:
Nominativo: haec Penelope (Penelope)
Genitivo: Penelopes (of Penelope)
Dativo: Penelope (to Penelope)
Accusativo: Penelopen (Penelope)
Vocativo: O Penelope (O Penelope)
Ablativo: a Penelope (from Penelope)

Pluraliter:
Nominativo: Penelopae
Genitivo: Peneloparum
Dativo: Penelopis
Accusativo: Penelopas
Vocativo: Penelopae
Ablativo: Penelopis

Are there places where these rules do not apply?

Yes. In some words, such as Dea (goddess), Filia (daughter), Ambae (both) and Duae (two) the Dative and Ablative cases end in -abus, rather than -is. This is mainly to distinguish them from their masculine forms like Deus and Filius.

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