Nutrition Ch 9

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1. Society plays a role in eating disorders because they are known only in developed nations and they become more prevalent as wealth increases and food becomes plentiful.

True

Waist circumference indicates visceral fatness, and above a certain girth, disease risks rise, even when BMI values are normal

True

Taller people need proportionately more energy than shorter people to balance their energy budgets.

True

The DRI Committee recommends at least 130 grams of carbohydrate a day

True

For someone with at least one obese parent, the chance of becoming obese is estimated to be between 30 and 70 percent.

True

Eating certain foods can elevate the basal metabolic rate, and thus promote weight loss.

False

Bulimia is more prevalent than anorexia nervosa and is more common in women than men.

True

Women in their reproductive years are likely to carry more intraabdominal fat than are women past menopause.

False

Physical activity must be long and arduous to achieve fat loss.

False

If a person uses fasting to lose weight, how will his or her body react?

the body will break down fat into ketone bodies to provide fuel

The psychological desire to eat is referred to as

appetite

A woman weighs 210 pounds and is 65 inches tall. Calculate her BMI.

35

Waist circumference reflects the degree of _____ in proportion to body fatness

visceral fatness

Excess body fatness is associated with an increased risk of

some cancers

When determining the BMR for an individual it is important to consider which of the following factors that will affect the rate?

the amount of daily physical activity, because it increases BMR over time

A woman who is trying to get pregnant has a BMI of 17 and a 10 percent body fat value. What factors should she consider concerning her body composition?

because of her low body fat composition she may have trouble with infertility

Donna weighs 160 pounds. How many grams of fat should Donna consume in order to meet the DRI recommendation, if she consumes 1600 calories a day?

35-62

Which of the following is the best recommendation to use the built environment in a neighborhood to encourage healthy weight practices?

using a bicycle for transportation when bike paths are available

All of the following are risks from being underweight except

thin people develop heart disease more often

Central to the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa is

a distorted body image

A woman is using behavior modification to change her eating habits in order to lose weight. Which of the following behaviors would be most successful for changing a particular cue?

when eating out she asks for a box at the beginning of the meal to split the portion on her plate

Body mass index is unsuitable for use with

athletes & pregnant women.

Excess fat around the _____ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere on the body

central abdominal area

Which of the following is based on weight and height and used in clinical settings to assess weight status

BMI

All of the following are recommendations for physical activity to maintain a healthy body weight except

only aerobic physical activities are beneficial for weight loss.

A woman who is a varsity soccer player has a BMI of 32, a waist circumference of 32, and 30 percent body fat. What would you say about her body composition?

she is obese and at risk for developing chronic diseases

One of the major benefits of physical activity for weight management is

an increase in lean muscle tissue, which burns more energy.

A person who is trying to gain weight and muscle mass will have the best outcome by

choosing nutrient- and energy-dense foods to help build new body tissue.

Quick, large changes in weight are most likely the result of all of the following except

changes in fat

You are weighing a team of football players and according to the BMI values they appear to be obese. Which of the following would you most likely conclude?

Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated scale weights. & Their bones may be well mineralized, which contributes to their weights.

Successful weight maintainers

exercise regularly. & keep track of food intake and exercise habits

Which of the following statements about basal metabolism is true

It supports the work that goes on all the time & It is directly controlled by the hormone thyroxine.

The definition of a food desert is

an area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants are close.

Characteristics of victims of anorexia nervosa include

they come from middle- or upper-class families. & they tend to be perfectionists.

Hunger makes itself known roughly _____ hours after eating

4-6

Hunger makes itself known roughly _____ hours after eating

very high

About _____ percent of a meal's energy value is used up in stepped-up metabolism in the five or so hours following each meal

5-10

James is trying to gain weight. Which of the following would you suggest to help James with his goal

Choose milkshakes instead of milk.

Older people generally need less energy than younger people due to

slowed basal metabolic rate. & declines in lean body mass.

When setting a target for weight loss, an appropriate goal would be

reduction of body weight by 5-10% over a year's time.

An effective method for losing weight would be to

keep records of your food intake and exercise to spot trends

One pound of body fat is equal to _____ calories

3500

Complications immediately following obesity surgery often include all of the following except

high blood pressure

The hormone produced by adipose tissue in response to body fat production that helps to control obesity is

leptin.

You are trying to reduce your food intake by skipping lunch for several weeks to lose weight and fit into a favorite outfit for a special occasion. However, by the middle of the afternoon you are very uncomfortable with the empty feeling in your stomach and feel you "have to" eat. This is caused by

hunger

How has physical activity played a role in weight trends in the U.S. recently?

sedentary activities have replaced outdoor play for many people

You have chosen to treat yourself to one weekly mocha latte coffee, which has 215 calories. This could add how much to your body weight in a year's time?

3 pounds

The major role that the hormone ghrelin plays in eating is to

signal hunger on an empty stomach

Recommendations for planning a diet for weight loss include the following

reduce calories as appropriate based on current BMI

Paul is a 19-year-old athlete who is 6' tall and weighs 178 pounds; Rick is a 40-year-old salesman who weighs 165 pounds and is 5' 7" tall. Who would have the higher basal metabolic rate?

Paul

The accumulation of excess visceral fat in the body may lead to health complications because

it can lead to chronic inflammation, which has been linked to heart disease

A person trying to gain weight should

participate in physical activity & eat more frequently.

Which of the following is not a true statement?

Carbohydrate from food is especially easy for the body to store as fat

Which individual's activity had the highest calorie cost?

Sara, who weighs 145 lb and did step aerobics (0.062 cal/lb/min) for 35 minutes

All of the following are involved in signaling satiation except:

the heart

Johnnie's father is 5' 11" tall and weighs 165 pounds, while his mother weighs 164 pounds and is 5' 2" tall. Johnnie's chances of becoming obese are at least _____ percent.

30

Which of the following strategies would be appropriate for an obese individual with a BMI of 40 or above who is healthy?

surgery such as a gastric bypass

Nutrition authorities agree that the staple foods of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets clearly raise the risk for:

heart and artery disease

Which of the following is not a health risk associated with deficient body fat?

increased risk of developing hypertension

The thermic effect of foods eaten can contribute to total energy expended in a day because

metabolism is stepped up for several hours after a meal in the metabolic response to food.

Which of the following is a valid recommendation for managing portion sizes of foods in order to manage weight?

choose smaller plates, glasses, and utensils & eat just until satisfied and then stop, even if food remains

You go to the movie theater after eating dinner and smell the popcorn in the concession stand. Although you are full, you start salivating and your stomach grumbles, so you buy a bag to eat during the show. This is an example of what signal for eating?

appetite

In early food deprivation, the nervous system cannot use _____ as fuel.

fat

The most important time of the day to eat when you are trying to lose weight is:

breakfast, because it may help reduce food intake all day long.

The theory that a person with more adipose tissue containing energy-wasting proteins will be leaner is referred to as the _____.

brown fat theory

Mary has a waist circumference of 38 inches. Based on this information you conclude that:

she develops fat centrally. & she is at an increased risk for disease

Your aunt is seriously considering having gastric surgery to help her lose weight because previous weight-loss diets have been unsuccessful. What information would you give to help her make her decision?

it is a serious decision because of the lifetime medical and nutrition supervision needed after surgery

A person who diets without exercising

often becomes trapped in weight cycling. & will be more susceptible to regaining weight lost.

Health professionals advise people with low fitness levels to engage in activities of _____ for weight loss

low to moderate intensity & long duration

Susie has been overweight for many years. She tends to eat when she is not really hungry and eats more food when she is angry or depressed. Which of the following could explain Susie's problem of overweight?

external cues

You suspect that your new college roommate may have an eating disorder because, although she seems to have a normal body size, you have heard her frequently vomiting after a meal, and her tooth enamel is becoming corroded. She also will frequently eat 3 boxes of crackers at one time to relieve stress and will then feel guilty afterwards. These are most likely symptoms of:

bulimia nervosa

A very-low-carbohydrate diet may be accompanied by

ketosis

Characteristics of bulimia include all of the following except:

the victim is unaware that her behavior is abnormal.

Which of the following foods has the greatest energy density?

vanilla ice cream that weighs 39 grams and is 155 calories

John routinely consumes 7,000 calories per day in excess of his energy expenditure. How much body fat would John store per day as a result of this practice?

2 pounds

Successful treatment for a young woman with anorexia nervosa includes:

stopping the cycle of weight loss and establishing regular eating patterns

What would be a good way for a low-income person living in the inner city to get exercise?

purchase a low-cost exercise DVD or video to use at home

The best way to begin to use physical activity to assist with weight control is to

incorporate multiple periods of short-duration moderate activity throughout the day.

One "outside of the body" factor that contributes to obesity is

the "built environment," which can discourage physical activity.

A body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 in an adult indicates

overweight

Fad diets are successful in the short term because they

induce a calorie deficit.

All of the following factors are associated with a higher basal metabolic rate except

starvation

A healthy person starting with average body fat can live totally deprived of food for as long as six to eight weeks due to:

ketosis

The three kinds of energy nutrients can be stored in the body as:

glycogen & fat

A woman of normal weight may have, on the average, _____ percent of the body weight as fat.

20

Which of the following types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods?

high in fiber & high in protein

A good way to help dieters to solve problems and increase motivation is to teach them to:

use cognitive restructuring of thoughts.

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