Their name derived from the amniotic egg which contains specialized membranes that protect the embryo.
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Their closest relatives are the amphibians.
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*Position from outside to inside
-1st chorion: Exchange gases between embryo and the air
-2nd allantois: Dispose metabolic wastes produced by the embryo.
-3rd amnion: Protect embryo in cavity that cushion against mechanical shock
-4th yolk sac: Provide nutrient and deliver nutrient to the embryo by blood vessel
Impermeable skin help them to prevent water loss so they could survive on terrestrial habitat
Rib cage help make room for lung to expand freely and also act as protection. This also pass down to human being for its useful purpose
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Also use scale to prevent dehydration in dry air, but with scale, it prevent reptile from breathing through their skin, so they rely on lung for gas exchange.
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Reptile are said to be cold blood because they don't use metabolism extensively to control body temperature, but they regulate by using behavioral adaptation
-bask in sun when air is cool, and seek shade when air is too warm.
-Using solar energy to break down food rather than going through metabolic breakdown of food, reptiles can survive on less than 10% of food energy required by mammal of same size.
Some parareptiles had dermal plates on their skin to provide them with defense against predator. Some scientist came up with a hypothesis of the dermal plates are homology to turtle shells.
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*Parareptiles died out about 200 million years ago, at the end of the Triassic period. After the Triassic, the diapsids come in the Jurassic period and they could be define as the DINOSAURS.
*One of the most obvious character of the diapsids is a pair of holes on each side of the skull, behind the eye socket.
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*Lepidosaurs also produce marine reptiles include plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs that are as big as today whale's length or maybe even bigger, but sadly, they are extinct.
*These big lepidosaurs are meat eater so if there was a choice to get blue whale or these lepidosaurs, I choose blue whale.
*Pterosaurs were first tetrapod to fly, but pterosaur wing was different from wing of bird and bats. It consisted of bristle cover membrane that stretch between hind leg and very long digit on foreleg.
*Theropod were bipedal carnivores and its the scientific name for meat-eating dinosaurs.
*One example of theropod is the well know T-rex
*Some scientist still debate whether dinosaur are ectoderm or endoderm because there is no living and strong evidence about the case.
*This picture is not to show all kind of dinosaurs, but to show that they come in all shape and size and most are very large. And look! There is the pterosaur we just talk about!
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*In the picture, it show on the left is the nesting of dinosaur, show evidence that dinosaur use feathers to keep their eggs warm because those bone are limp of bird with feather
*These tuatara live on island and feed on insects, small lizard, birds egg and chicks. They can live over 100 yrs old if they are not being threatened by existence of rats.
*The picture below is the Australian thorny devil lizard.
*Most lizard can be small, but some are quite big, one example of big lizard are the Komodo dragon.
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*Komodo dragon are quite large and they hunt really large prey, they feast on deer, wild pig, sometime even WATER BUFFALO, they would also attack baby komodo dragon if they can't find anything else, and lastly, many human found kill by these lizards. Komodo would kill by infecting their prey with a mouth full of bacteria when they bite, and would wait until their prey would die of blood infection.
*There was evidence that they evolve from lizards
*Their habitat and many characteristic of their are very close to lizard.
*Some snake could be found with a vestigial pelvic and limb bones, provide evidence of their ancestry
*But these leg are very much useless to them and could do nothing but a bothersome clinging body parts.
*Turtle doesn't match with most amniote because amniotes are animals that could survive on dry terrestrial land (which they are) but amniotes have hard scale to prevent water lost but with exception with only turtles.
*Instead turtle have moist surfaces for gas exchange.
*There is no evidence of when and where turtles got their shells.
*Boxlike shell is also mean that there is one on top and one on bottom like a shoebox.
*Those that adapt to deserts or land, have large shells.
*But sea turtle have reduce shell and enlarge forelimb that function as flipper.
*Earliest member of this lineage were small terrestrial quadruped with long, slender legs.
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*Later, they became larger and adapted to aquatic habitats, breathing air through their upturned nostrils.
*Some grew as long as 10m and may have attacked large dinosaurs.
*Crocodilians are confined to warm regions of Africa, China, Indonesia, India, Australia, S and S.E America.
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* But after spending years on endangered species list, they have made a strong comeback.