Unit 5-Imperialism and Nationalism

Created by JJFranzak 

Upgrade to
remove ads

66 terms

Henry Stanley

British-American explorer of Africa, famous for his expeditions in search of Dr. David Livingstone. He helped King Leopold II establish the Congo Free State.

Cecil Rhodes

Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.

Matthew Perry

A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might.

Otto Van Bismarck

Prime Minister of Prussia (largest state in Northern Germany); wanted a greater, unified Germany (smaller Southern states to join Prussia; preferred "iron and blood" to diplomacy

Camillo Cavour

The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state

Mafia

a secret terrorist group in Sicily

Benito Juarez

Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico

Abdul Hamid

Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908

David Livingston

A well known explorer and missionary of Africa for over 30 years. He wrote about Africa with more sympathy and less bias than most writers of his time.

King Leopold II

King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732)

Empress Dowager CiXi

Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces. (p. 721)

Kaiser Willhelm I

after the Franco-Prussian war, southern Germany had nationalistic feelings
accepted Prussia as their leaders
at the captured French palace in 1871 King Willhelm of Prussia was crowned kaiser
kaiser: German emperor

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)

Alexander I

the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)

Portafino Diaz

an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N. Méndez as interim president, and a four-year term served by his political ally Manuel González from 1880 to 1884. Commonly considered by historians to have been a dictator, he is a controversial figure in Mexican history.

Mahmud III

Proceeded cautiously, picking loyal officers and building up his dependable artillery corps, drilled in the european manner; destructed the janissaries

Rudyard Kipling

English author of novels and poetry who was born in India (1865-1936)

Queen Victoria

British Queen, under whose rule the British empire reached the height of its wealth and power, forced to accept a new, virtually powerless role after the Chartist movement

Gandhi

political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule

Giuseppe Mazzini

Italian nationalist whose writings spurred the movement for a unified and independent Italy (1805-1872)

Victor Emmanuel II

King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia. Eventually became first king of a united Italy. Led the north in Italian unification and united with Garibaldi's south in 1861. Drove the pope into the Vatican city, and eventually made Rome the capital of Italy.

Alexander III

(1881) son of Alex II, increased use of secret police, censorship, exiles to Siberia, Russianunification to suppress non-Russians, pogroms

Sun Yat Sen

This man was a radical Chinese reformer who sought to overthrow the government

Menelik Ii

Emperor of Ethiopia who played Italians, British, and French against each other while buying weapons from France and Russia. In the Battle of Adowa, Ethiopian forces successfully defeated the Italians and maintained their independence.

Militarism

a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests

Racism

the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Sphere of Influence

the geographical area in which one nation is very influential

Annexation

the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation

Panama Canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)

Scramble for Africa

Sudden wave of conquests in Africa by European powers in the 1880s and 1890s. Britain obtained most of eastern Africa, France most of northwestern Africa. Other countries (Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain) acquired lesser amounts. (p. 731)

boer Wars

Wars between the Dutch and British in Africa. A sort of cold war between the two powers. The Dutch wanted slavery but the English didn't

Nationalism

the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination

imperialism

A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.

Assimilation

the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure

Paternalism

the attitude (of a person or a government) that subordinates should be controlled in a fatherly way for their own good

Direct Rule

system of colonial government in which the imperialist power controlled all levels of government and appointed its own officials to govern the colony.

Partition

the act of dividing or partitioning

Opium Wars

war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese treaty to the British- the opening of 5 chinese ports to foreign merchants, and the grant of other commercial and diplomatic privileges

Afrikaner

a white native of Cape Province who is a descendant of Dutch settlers and who speaks Afrikaans

Meiji Restoration

The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

National Sovereignty

a nation's right to establish its own form of government and laws without external influence

White Man's Burden

idea that many European countries had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized

Anti-Semitism

policies, views, or actions that harm or discriminate against Jews

Protectorate

a state or territory partly controlled by (but not a possession of) a stronger state but autonomous in internal affairs

Extraterritoriality

Right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.

Suez Canal

Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882.

Berlin Conference of 1885

Meeting in Berlin, called by Bismarck to regulate European colonization of Africa - called for "effective occupation" to claim territory. Led to the scramble for Africa. Recognized Leopold's claim to Congo.

Zulu

a Bantu language of considerable literary importance in southeastern Africa

Russo-Japenese War

Russia and japan both wanted korea. the US stepped in and helped japan lower its offerings to agree to a peaceful treaty

Sepoy Rebellion

The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.

Indirect Rule

a system of colonial government under which the governor and a council of advisers developed laws for the colony but local rulers were given the opportunity to exert some degree of authority.

Muslim League

organization formed by muslims in 1906 to protect their interests against British Rule.

Red Shirts

Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.

Franco-Prussian War

Set up by Otto Von Bismarck, war was declared July 19, 1870. In January 1871, Palace of Versailles was captured and Wilhelm I was named Kaiser. This empire was called the Second Reich.

Taiping-Rebellion

The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.

Emancipation of the Serfs

Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.

Tanzimat Reforms

Series of reforms in the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; established Western-style universities, state postal system, railways, extensive legal reforms; resulted in creation of new constitution in 1876

Indian National Congress

A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor.

Realpolitik

politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations

Autocracy

a political theory favoring unlimited authority by a single individual

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

Nation State

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality

Blood and Iron

"Blood and Iron" was the speech that Otto Von Bismarck gave with the belief that a strong industry and military was needed in a country to have success. The blood represented the military while the iron represented the industry of Germany.

Qing Dynasty

the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries

Crimean War

a war in Crimea between Russia and a group of nations including England and France and Turkey and Sardinia

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set