emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge; exploration of individual potential and a desire to excel
technique of painting using pigment mixed with egg yolk, glue, or casein
style painted/sculptured representation based on close observation of the natural world (core of classic tradition)
"consumer of flesh"; a coffin, usually of stone
in a drawing/painting, the treatment and use of light and dark
painting on lime plaster
dry painting on lime plaster
wet painting on lime plaster
wooden block on the surface of which access parts are removed to a slight depth leaving the design raised
spanish leader in conquest of America (Mexico/Peru - 16th Century)
Incan's writing system; threading that recorded calendric/astronomical info., census/tribute totals, and inventories
bubonic plague that killed 50% of Europe/Asia in 1340
seperate pages of vellum or parchment bound together at one side (book)
14th-15th century painting begun by Simone Martini; appealed to Aristocracy: brilliant color, lavish costumes, intricate ornaments, and themes
"weight shift" because the weight of the body tends to be thrown to one foot creating tension on one side and relaxation
human sacrifices in the public to reinforce Aztec culture (show that they're in charge)
use of oil based pigments that rose to prominence in Northern Europe in the 15th century and now the standard medium for painting on canvas
an association of merchants, craft-persons, or scholars in Medieval and Renaissance Europe
three-paneled painting, ivory plaque, or altarpiece
consisted of the prince, his consort and children, courtiers, house hold staff, and administrators; didn't have to be a prince to establish a court, just had to have wealth and ambition
(French) "Fools the eye"; illusionistic painting the aims to deceive viewers into believing they are real objects, rather than a representation
graphic technique in which the design is incised, or scratched, on a metal plate (manually- engraving, or chemically- etching)
Describe the symbolism of the Borgia Codex.
God of life and death, the image conveys the inevitable relationship of life and death, an important theme in Mesoamerican art. Double keyboard of teeth (inverted skull) is a symbol of the underworld god of life (black, masked human rather than a feathered serpent). God of death (white). Symbols of Mesoamerican ritual calendar appear in the margins.
What are the differences in the Spanish conquistadors and the Aztec's approach to battle?
Aztecs - "Flowery Wars" special battles to obtain captives for future sacrifice. Adopted the gods of the conquered people.
Describe how the disc of Coyolzauhqui was used as a political symbol and a reminder of Aztec identity.
Political symbol - service of state ideology, power of Mexica over their enemies and inevitable fate they have when defeated.
How did the Inka control their empire?
controlled politics and economics as well as art styles and clothing. Clothing showed status.
What is the significance of Macchu Picchu?
completely invisible from the Urubamba river valley. Site was undisturbed since Inka times. Buildings had windows and doors with views of sacred peaks and astronomical events.
Byzantine Art traits and characteristics
Halos, symmetry, and gold leaf.
Late Medieval Art traits and characteristics
Example: Madonna and Child in majesty; religious in subject matter; important figures are shown as larger than others around them; figures look stiff with little sense of movement; fully clothed; faces serious and shoved with little emotion; flat and 2 dimensional; backgrounds were one color
Renaissance - What is it? Where does it begin and why? Pick illustration to explain.
French, "rebirth." the term used to describe the history, culture, and art of 14th-16th century western Europe during which artists consciously revived the classical style; (Ex. Forshort of Jesus)
Arena Chapel - purpose, commissioner, whose lives are depicted?
Comissoned by Enrico Scrovengi, lives depicted fresco cycle presents a narrative of the life of the virgin and the life of christ
Florence Cathedral - Architect of Cathedral, Architect of Dome, and Architect of Tower
architect of Cathedral- Filippo Brunelleschi; Dome- Arnolfo di Cambio; Tower- Giotto di Bondone
Northern Renaissance Art - Traits and characteristics
humanism-emphasis on education and expanding knowledge (secular realms-sciences-botany, biology, anatomy, astronomy/astrology, math, poetry, literature; civic moral and duty; natural wold , direct observation, classic->Greco-Roman
Sculptor of the Well of Moses and prophets depicted?
Claus Sluter's ; 6 prophets: moses, david, Jeremiah, zachariah, daniel, and isaiah
Contest for the Florence Baptistry Doors
The competitors were expected to submit panels representing the Old Testament story of the Abraham's Sacrifice of Isaac. It depicts the moment when Abraham, ordered by God to sacrifice his only son, is about to plunge the knife into Isaac's neck, but his hand is stayed at the last moment by an angel. This story of divine delivrance would undoubtedly have resonated with Florentines, whose city had been delivered by the sudden death Gian Galeazzo Visconti in September of 1402.
Who was the Quintessential Renaissance Man? What made him so?
Leonardo Da Vinci, who was a master of art, an engineer, an anatomy expert (for the time), and also pursued many other disciplines with great success.
Compare/Contrast Michelangelo's David with Bernini's David. How do Renaissance and Baroque styles factor in?
Donatello was coming out of the Medieval mindset where the Human Body was itself considered to be evil and something to be ashamed of, never heroic. He was certainly reacting against this by making David nude, but his David was still a boy who looks DOWNWARD, even as he thrusts his pelvis forward. The figure has muscles but is still slender, and there is something of a clear relationship between him and Romanesque and Gothic figures, despite that artists who depicted the nude in Medieval times faced jail or worse.
With Michelangelo we are really at the height of the renaissance, which means rebirth, and that is something very important in discussing his David, and most of his other nudes. You see, he was a man of deep religiousity and strong philosophical beliefs whose depiction of male nudes was influenced by his understanding of Neo-Platonism. His shoulders are broad and his rib cage well-articulated. His head faces the side proudly in contrast to Donatello's and as the figure is taller we are forced to look up at him. This is not just a nude, this is a majestic nude. It is precisely heroic in a way that Donatello was afraid to depict David.
Bernini on the other hand has the clear diagonal of the Baroque and shows not only an angry David loading his sling, but also tells more by eluding that Goliath is right in front of him. David is in full motion with his sling. His muscles are tensed and he has a grimace on his face. David looks to be his age, and is clothed a little. Michelangelo's David shows movement in one arm and the turning of the head, while Bernini has head movement, arm and torso movement. I feel that Bernini's David is much more appealing simply for the fact that it tells more of a story, and is better crafted. It also has much more detail. However, time has shown that Michelangelo's David is considered to be the premiere piece of sculpture even though it is more boring.
What is the Counter-Reformation?
Throughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation. An era of strict conformity and accompanying terror had begun.
What is the Black Death and why is it important?
The Bubonic Plague killed half of Europe and Asia and led to families hiring artists to paint images of Jesus or Mary to protect them from the plague.