Deviance is a violation of a social norm doing what's not expected of us.
- Range of Tolerance
The scope of behaviors considered acceptable before defining someone as deviant. (Push how far we can go till it's a violation)
- Over Conformity
follows the norm to closely (Teachers Pet) does more than expected. In a lot of ways this person is still deviance cause they are outside the social norm.
doing just enough to get by. Deviant cause they are just doing below norm.
Conformity does what is expected of us the Norm. Doing what is expected
any characteristic that sets people apart or separates them from full participation in society. This is also the label for being deviant in the past. (Felon, Addict, Child Molester.)
history of what is said to be deviant in yesterdays world in yesterdays world was much different than today. (Drinking Laws, Living with girl-friend, Female Clothing, Interracial Dating) Meaning it was deviant in past but not any longer. The norms change with time.
- Place where activity is actually happening
Environment, Location what's deviant in one location may be considered conformity in this location.
this is literally what is happening at this very moment is important to determine rather something is deviant or not.
the most important issue in trying to determine if something is deviant. (What one culture considers to be deviant one might consider as a norm.)
- Popular Explanations
explains why crime happens in the first place
- Biological argument
genetically required to commit crime.
- Religious explanation
God told me to do this, The devil made me do this. People that are more religious are less likely to commit a crime
- Medical Model
the idea that deviance is viewed as an illness not a social problem.
If they are sick they can be fixed.... Re-Socialize. Change environment and change their behavior. Medicalization of society
plays a role that effects violence among young children. Pornography and violence against women.
- Structural Functionalism
Social Inequality is the root of all crime (Robert Merton)
- Classic Strain Theory
The most popular theory of Crime. People commit crime cause they want to live a better life and don't like the Circumstances of their own life. All Americans believe in the American dream. No equal opportunity to achieve our dreams. Strain is the tension that we feel inside of our selves' cause we feel like we cannot attain our dreams.
- 5 Adaptions to strain
1. Conformity Conforming to the rules and expectations of society. Won't commit a crime.
ALL below are deviant cause they do what's not expected.
2. Innovation - The innovator creative way to move up the latter ( CRIME ). Rules of society are not important.
3. Ritualism - want to move up and make it in society but do not even try and do better. Not going to commit a crime. (Violation of American Dream.)
4. Retreat-ism - Falls out of society, not interested and not even working anymore. (Homeless People, Drug Addicts.)
5. Rebellion-ism - Reject society; want to change the way society is.
- Conflict Theory
Laws, Rules, and Regulations in our society are designed to protect the interest of the rich and powerful. Powerful people make laws and everyone else has to follow them, Its a lot of grey areas in laws.
- Conflict Theory Parts
1. Some laws benefit some groups more than others / Penalize some groups more than others.
2. The enforcement of the law is not always equal.
3. Function of the police is to control some areas of the town control population.
4. Different penalties for the same crime depending on your status.
- Labeling Theory
how you view yourself within the context of crime, once some one is labeled from crime how do they react to it.
when I admit I did something wrong but I don't see myself as a bad person.
person who was labeled for crime and accepts it and decides to act on it and take on characteristics of who they are labeled.
Differential Association Theory
Edwin Sutherland developed and he argued the different associations that you have develop your crime characteristics. We need to do something to change the environment so these people do not come out better criminals than when they went in.
- Social / Self Control Theory
Developed by Travis Hirschi and he argued that all the other theory's make since but they miss the real question, they all ask why do people commit crimes. He wants to know why do people follow the rules in the first place. You have to understand social bonds clearly.
Social Control Theory
the amount of control the society has over you as an individual, It's about external control.
some of us have more control over ourselves so that when the temptation is around us and we can just say no, Internal control. The opposite of this is a person who has no self-control.
1. PROPERTY CRIME / STREET CRIME
Theft, Vandalism, you did something to the stuff that someone owns.
2. Violent Crime
Rape, Assault, Murder, Forcible Robbery, every 33 minutes someone is murdered.
3. White Collar
Embezzlement, Fraud, Insider Trading, Identity Theft, Extortion, Bribery, Forgery.
4. Victimless Crime
Public Order Prostitution, Buying drugs, Gambling, The willing exchange among adults of illegal goods and services.
A condition in society where people have unequal access to wealth, power, & prestige. (Essentially we are not all equal
- A form of inequality in which large categories of people are ranked on the basis of wealth, power, and prestige. (Factors beyond our control that will limit how far we can go.) *didn't start off running this race at the same place.
Life Chance Opportunities
The Reasonable possibility of achieving your American Dreams. (Some people have more reasonable opportunity.)
Open Vs. Closed Society
Open society that has social mobility (Move Up Or Down) Closed Society is one that does not have social mobility.
Inter Generational Mobility
movement measured from one generation of family to another generation of same family.
Intra Generational Mobility
is within the same generation of your life from beginning to end how much progress did you make. IDEA OF DOING BETTER.
the total value of the material good or things that you own. ASSETS
the ability to implement ones goals and policies, despite opposition from others.
the ability to make decisions that affect your own life.
the ability to make decisions that affect other people's lives.
when a person presents attributes or skills that illicit people view on them Respect and Admire. (ROLE MODEL ETC...)
Goals that you aspire to be
do you have the talent to do it.
American Class Structure
levels of status in our society
African Americans 25% and Latinos 22% are over represented in poverty. Whites are under represented as far as percentages is concerned but there is more Whites in poverty due to the fact hat they have a larger majority number.
More women are likely to live in poverty then men cause women tend to have the children so that income that she makes doesn't go as far. THE FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY
- AGE / CHILDREN
we have more children growing up in poverty then any other industrial civilization. Older people are misrepresented there are more than we know of.
Southern Region has the most amount of poor, Mississippi to be exact.
- City Areas
inner cities come in first.
a broad category of people who are distinguished from others based on their physical characteristics.
is generally associated with culture. Status based on you culture religion or national Origin.
we are relying on our own character thoughts
- Human Genome Project
Humans share 99 % of the same genes.
- No Pure Racial Groups
no such thing as a pure racial group.
- One Drop Rule
Rule if you have ancestors that are a member of a minority then you are a member of that group. 1982 in Louisiana court judgment 1/32nd black. Race is less about biology and more about the world that we live in.
- Social Construction of Race
Race is real socially its imprecise cause we don't really know what it is. Its constructed different in different places.
- Real Race
not real biology
- Minority Group
Less power and political influence. Less about the numbers and more on who can make things happen (Political Power)
preconceived judgments about a group of people based on stereotypes that ignore differences amongst different individuals. Its powerful because it's a little bit of truth in the stereotype.
is the act of prejudice. The unequal treatment of individuals or a group of people because of their racial group membership. Robert Merton argues that people who are not prejudice discriminate everyday.
attitudes and beliefs that one racial group is superior or inferior to another. Institutional is built into the fabric of or society. It's a part of who we are as a nation.
- Race Identity vs Ethnic Identity
people who are proud of their ethnic community and stay involved. Close connection between this and social class. The lower we are on the class ladder the more proud we are of our ethnic group. People of the same race can have different ethnicities and people of same ethnicity can be from different races. There is a fluid connection between race and ethnicity.
is Personal beliefs about another race
racial discrimination or treatment of different groups is a part of the American life.
- The Tipping Point
Not able to determine when property value goes down. When the percentage of blacks move into a neighborhood.
Dominant / Minority Relations
Different ways the broader group can treat the minority group
(Genocide ) Kill of the minority.
(Oppression ) Control them through laws, military and policies.
Separate but equal segregation etc.... Plessy Vs Fergusen 1896 Supreme court separate but equal establishment. Separate but equal facilities are constitutional in the United States
opposite of subjugation, recognition of more than one culture the rights of minorities are protected by laws.
. Brown Vs Board of education reverses the separate but equal, Kansas child wanted to go to school
process by which groups loose their specific identity over time it's a long term process not immediately.
Passage of Time
we know less of our past
Members of minority groups move together and then move out from their own race and start to interact with other racial ethnic backgrounds.
intermarriage and creating mixed children
2 way street you have to want to assimilate and loose your ethnicity background and white America has to say its ok for you to come in.
Cultural Difference and Standards between the 2 Sex's
Norms or expectations of behavior that distinguish between males and females. They are different in different societies...
attributes that we associate with Men.
attributes that we associate with women.
Socialization to Gender
Colors Characters and toys that we associate with Genders
1 Political Representation
2 Domestic Confinement t
3 Double Shift
4 Discrimination @ Work
5 Victims of Violence
6 Debate Over Reproduction Rights