Anatomy

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1. The tendency of a stretched muscle fiber to return to its original length is called ______. 2. One motor nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it are called a _________ _______. 3. A plasma membrane is said to be ______________ if there is a difference in charge on opposite sides of it. 4. The ____________ ___________ theory is the current model of how a muscle fiber contracts. 5. A resting muscle is normally in a state of partial contraction called _________________. 6. A muscl…

In a resting muscle, the __________ contains a concentrated solution of calcium.

sarcoplasmic reticulum

Motor nerve fibers release a neurotransmitter called ____, which make skeletal muscle fibers contract.

AcH

e tendency of a stretched muscle fiber to return to its original length is called ______.

elasticity

One motor nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it are called a _________ _______.

motor unit

A plasma membrane is said to be ______________ if there is a difference in charge on opposite sides of it.

polarized

The ____________ ___________ theory is the current model of how a muscle fiber contracts.

sliding filament

A resting muscle is normally in a state of partial contraction called _________________.

tonus

A muscle fiber will not contract unless it is depolarized to a voltage called its __________.

threshold

Several body orifices are regulated by circular muscles called

sphincters

Muscle fibers are arranged in bundles called

fascicles

A muscle that prevents unwanted movement of a bone is called a

synergist

Each muscle fiber is surrounded by its own connective tissue sheath called the

endomysin

The bone at a muscle's __ shows little or no movement when that muscle contracts

orgin

A __ is a muscle that contracts to move a bone

Skeletal

The muscle of the lips is the

orbicularis oris

The prime mover of neck flexion which allows us to bow out head is the

sternocleidomastoid

The largest muscle of the upper back is the

latissimusdorsi

The linea alba seperates the right and left ___ muscles

rectus abdominus

The hamstring muscles are the

1.Biceps femoris, 2.semimembranosus, 3.semitendinosus

The ___ closes the eye, makes us blink and squint

orbicularis oculi

A broad flat tendon is an

aponeurosis

A smile is produced by a contractoin of the?

zygomaticus muscle

The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the

transversus abdominis

The longest muscle of the human body is the

sartorius

A quick cycle of muscle contractin and relaxation is called a

twitch

What lowers the pH of the sarcoplasm and contributes to muscle fatigue

lactid acid

Contraction in which a muscle develops tension but does not shorten is called

isometric

The ____ zone becomes narrower during muscle contraction

H band

The oxygen storage molecule in muscle is

myoglobin

Contraction in which a muscle shortens and moves the load is called

isotonic

A state of physiological inability to contract, even though the muscle may still be recieving stimuli is

muscle fatigue

A high energy molecule stored in muscles that transfers a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP after stored ATP is consumed is

creatine phosphate

During long periods of exercise, muscles consume ____________, ___________, _____________, ___________, _______________ and ___________________. This produces

1.glucose 2. glycogen 3.oxygen 4.pyrubic acid 5.fatty acids 6.amino acids

After about 30 minutes, _____ becomes the major energy feuls of muscles

fat

The amount of oxygen required after exercise to replenish stores of oxygen, ATP, creatine phosphate, and glucose is called

oxygen debt

Which muscle is voluntary

skeletal

Muscles stores energy in

glycogen

In a relaxed muscle fiber, the active sites of actin are blocked

tropomysin

Each end of sarcomere is marked by a

Z disc

During the time that a muscle is shortening but maintaining constant tension it is undergoing _____________ contraction.

isotomic

The region of a sarcomere where actin and myosin overlap is the _______ band.

A

When there is not enough oxygen to create ATP by aerobic respiration, a muscle fiber can produce ATP by borrowing phosphate groups from

Creatine phosphate

Regulatory proteins of the myofilaments are ____________________ and ___________________.

troponin and tropomysin

Contractile proteins of the myofilaments are _________________ and ___________________.

actin and myosin

Which of these processes occurs during the contraction of skeletal muscle?

Z discs move closer together

73. Which of the following is NOT found in the thin filaments of striated muscle?
A. F actin B. ATPase C. troponin D. tropomyosin E. Ca2+ receptors

B. ATPase

In contrast to red muscle fibers, white fibers

fatigue more quickly

The loss of muscle mass from disuse is called

atrophy

Posture is maintained mainly by

slow motion fibers

A motor unit is

One nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated together

80. After a muscle fiber has exhausted its stores of ATP and creatine phosphate, it switches to _______ as a source of energy.
A. glycolysis B. fat oxidation C. aerobic respiration D. anaerobic fermentation E. creatine kinase

D

If a poison inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase, a muscle

May be unable to relax

Fatigue of muscle is due to the build up of

lactic acid

A bundle of muscle fibers is

fascicle

The thick filament of a sarcomere of a skeletal muscle cell contains

myosin

The union between a nerve fiber and a muscle fiber is the

neuromuscular junction

The thin filament of a sarcomere of a skeletal muscle cell contains

Actin

The movable end of a muscle is the

intertion point

The immovable end of the muscle is the

orgin

What chemical is realeased from the neuron end plates?

AcH

When myosin heads bind to the actin sites, and actin-myosin____ is formed

cross bridge

A single stimulus to a muscle fiber results in a

muscle twitch

Refers to a single, sustained muscle contraction

tetanus

A motor unit must be polarized to its ___ before action potential will occur

threshold

the three phases of a twitch are

1.latent 2.contraction 3.relaxation

What contraction is the force generated by the muscle does not change, but the muscle's length changes

isometric

In what is glucose used to create a small amount of ATP without using oxygen?

fermentation

In what is ATP produced in greater quantity, but oxygen is required

Aerobic respiration

Smooth muscle is found primarily in the

walls of hollow organs

On ___ muscle fibers can divide

Skeletal

When smooth muscle is stretched, it responds by

contracting

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