memory for past instances
memory for furture intentions
Three main types of prospective memory
Event based, time-based, activity based
Event based memory
when an environmental cue triggers the intention
Time based memory
when time triggers the intention
Activity based memory
when the completion of an activity triggers the intention
What special population is more likely to perform worse on some prospective memory tasks?
Older and clinical patients
-bad at self-intiated tasks
-can improve by making the task more external
How do high and low-working memory capacity individuals differ in terms of prospective memory?
People with high working memory capacity perform better on prospective memory tasks
Low ability people often compensate by using external strategies
Do people have a general awareness of how good their prospective memory is?
People have a general feel for how good their prospective memory ability is
What is source memory?
memory for the origin of information, not the information itself
How can source misattributions lead to negative consequences?
happens when you assign information to an incorrect origin
could lead to unconscious plagiarism- coping someone but not knowing it
What brain area is primarily activated when we have an emotional memory?
What is weapon focus and what does it say about our memory for emotional information?
describes enhanced memory for the central details of an emotional event and decreased memory for the surrounding detail
Do negative and positive memories differ?
Most all of the effects describe negative memories
Pos are more inconsistent and often behave more like neutral information
How does negative information affect recognition?
Recognition memory is enhanced for negative items
How does negative information affect source memory?
can actually decrease for negative items
How does negative information affect prospective memory?
can also be reduced for negative items
What is a flashbulb memory?
it is a memory for how you heard about a shocking event
-it is NOT a memory for the event itself
Example of flashbulb
knowing exactly where you were and what you were doing when 9/11 happened
Do the details of flashbulb memories change over time and how did repeated recall studies answer this question?
If you have people repeatedly recall the details of a flashbulb memory, they tend to change
What is the likely explanation for why we have very good memory for flashbulb memories?
because they have emotional connections that would be inconsistent with weapon forcus
Narrative rehearsal hypothese states that the better memory is due to more recalling
What are autobiographical memories?
is memory for personal experiences and is related to episodic memory
What are two perspectives that can be taken when experiencing an autobiographical memory?
field perspective- which means you are remembering as if you were seeing it
observer perspective- which is viewing it from the outside
Three possible explanations for the reminiscence bump
self-image hypothesis, cognitive hypothesis, cultural life scripts hypothesis
Reminiscence bump: self-image hypothesis
states that people form identities during this period
What is the reminiscence bump?
describes how people hve more autobiographical memories from their adolescence and early adulthood
-reasearchers show that when asked to recall events, people remembered much more from this time period
Reminiscence bump: cognitive hypothesis
is that encoding is better during this period because of rapid change
Reminiscence bump: cultural life scripts hypothesis
states that more significant events happen at this time for our culture
What is savings in relearning?
Good study strategy
-if you wait shorter intervals between learning material, it will be easier to learn the material later
-Example: if it take syou 12 trials to learn something and you wait a short time, it may only take you 5 next time
What is the spacing effect?
is better memory for spaced encoding vs. massed encoding
What is one possible reason that we discussed in class for why the spacing effect occurs?
you get more encoding variablility with spaced and we know that multiple encoding strategies gives you better memory
What does it mean to say that memory is constructive?
memory is not just based on the exact occurence, but also on our knowledge experiences and expectations
-we construct our memories, and they are not photographic
What do we use to construct our memories? How is this good and a bad thing?
knowledge experiences and expectations
this nature of memory is good in that it allows us to be flexible and creative
can be bad because it can lead to errors
-War of Ghost story- said hunting fish but not fishing
What was the classmate study?
people were asked to recall as many of their classmates as possible
What did the classmate study demonstrate about the good and bad nature of memory?
With time they recalled more of their classmates but they also made more fabrications
What are schemas?
organized knowledge structures about an experience
What are scripts?
memories for a sequence of actions based on experience
How did schemas affect memory performance in the office study that we discussed in class?
people recalled things that were not in the office if they were consistent with the office
What is the misinformation effect?
describes how information learned after an event can change memory
Loftus et al.
Saw a car stopped at a yield or stop sign
then asked questions w either correct or incorrect info
memory was worse if you got misleading info
Loftus and Palmer
showed a video of a car crash
then were asked how fast the car was going
according to what word they used afterward to describe the crash the participants gave different estimates of speed
What are the three possible explanations that I offered in class for why the misinformation effect occurs?
Could be that new info replaced the old info (overwriting)
Could be that you are just getting retroactive interference
Could be a source memory error
What makes something a false memory?
when people come to believe something occured that really did not
Can people be confident in these false memories?
How did the memory demonstration that we did in class highlight false memory confidence?
everyone thought that a word was listed in a group of words presented because it related closely to the words that actually were presented
What effect does adding more detail often have on false memories?
It can actually increase false memories
What effects can a high level of stress have on memory (both immediate and long-term effects)?
it can have a positive impact on memory if at a moderate level, but too much is detrimental
it reduced the amount of info you can encode in STM as well as how effectively you can retrieve infor from LTM (ie working memory)
What brain areas are activated when we are stressed
hypothalamus and amaygdala
Why do stress have a detrimental effect on memory?
you can lose brain cells and it can damage the blood-brain barrier
How can you help people that have bad prospective memory?
make things more external