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What is the rationale for vomiting with increased intracranial pressure?

Pressure on the emetic center in the medulla

A brain tumor causes headache because the tumor:

stretches the meninges and blood vessel walls

Which of the following statements is TRUE about malignant brain tumors?

Primary brain tumors rarely metastasize outside of the CNS

What is the probable source of an embolus causing a CVA?

common carotid artery

All of the following apply to CVA EXCEPT:

Maximum necrosis and infarction develop within several hours of onset

Which of the following statements about berry aneurysms in the brain is NOT true?

Rupture causes signs of circulatory shock

What are the significant signs of acute bacterial meningitis?

severe headache, nuchal rigidity, and photophobia

All of the following apply to tetanus infection EXCEPT:

Signs of infection include fever, vomiting, stiff neck, and paralysis

In cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, what does the pathophysiology include?

inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves, leading to ascending paralysis

How does a depressed skull fracture cause brain damage?

A section of skull bone is displaced below the level of the skull, causing pressure on the brain.

11. An epidural hematoma is located between the:

dura mater and the skull

12. What does the term otorrhea mean?

CSF leaking from the ear

13. Following an injury at L2 to L3, what would indicate recovery from spinal shock?

spastic paraplegia

14. Expressive aphasia is most likely to result from damage to:

the left frontal lobe

15. Which statement best describes herniation resulting from increased intracranial pressure?

displacement of brain tissue downward toward the spinal cord

16. Which type of cerebrovascular accident has the poorest prognosis?

hemorrhagic CVA

17. What are the significant early signs of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm?

severe headache, nuchal rigidity, and photophobia

18. With regard to meningitis, choose the correct combination of microbe and the age group commonly affected.

N. meningitides: children and youth

19. Which statement applies to Huntington's disease? It:

presents with choreiform movements in the upper body and decreased ability to concentrate

20. Common manifestations of rabies infection include:

headache, foaming at the mouth, and difficulty swallowing

21. Herpes zoster can be identified by a typical:

unilateral rash and pain along a cranial nerve or dermatome

22. Typical signs of a TIA include:

transient muscle weakness in a hand or leg

23. In cases of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, why does excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulate?

An obstruction is present in the aqueduct of Sylvius or other channel.

24. The best description of a myelomeningocele is:

herniation of the meninges, CSF, and spinal cord or nerves through a vertebral defect

25. How is the presence of spina bifida diagnosed?

prenatally by ultrasound or detection of AFP in maternal blood or amniotic fluid

26. Which of the following applies to cerebral palsy?

nonprogressive brain damage to the fetus or neonate

27. Which of the following is characteristic of generalized seizures?

the uncontrolled discharge of neurons in both hemispheres

28. Which statement does NOT apply to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis?

progressive random degeneration of peripheral nerves

29. Which of the following are common early manifestations of Parkinson's disease?

tremors at rest in the hands and difficulty initiating voluntary movements

30. In which type of neuron is progressive degeneration occurring with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?

upper and lower motor neurons

1. What is the most common cause of endocrine abnormalities?

benign tumor

2. What is the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis?

increased catabolism of fats and proteins

3. Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia in a diabetic?

staggering gait, disorientation, and confusion

4. Visual impairment may develop in diabetics, primarily because of:

abnormal metabolism in the lens

5. Which one of the following develops hypoglycemia more frequently?

Type I diabetics

6. Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes Addison's disease?

decreased glucocorticoids

7. Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes myxedema?

deficit of T3 and T4

8. Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?

deficit of ADH

9. Which of the following applies to acromegaly?

It results from excessive secretion of GH.

Which of the following may cause goiter?
1. hyperthyroidism
2. hypothyroidism
3. lack of iodine in the diet
4. pheochromocytoma

1, 2, 3

11. Characteristics of Cushing's syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:

staring eyes with infrequent blinking

12. Which of the following is an effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy?

decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland

13. Why does glucosuria occur in diabetics?

The amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit.

14. What is/are the effect(s) of thyrotoxic crisis?

hyperthermia and heart failure

15. What is the recommended treatment for insulin shock if the patient remains conscious?

oral administration of concentrated glucose

16. Which of the following conditions may cause immunosuppression?

Cushing's disease

17. Differences between Type I and Type II diabetes include:

Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in children and adolescents, and Type II diabetes occurs more often in adults

18. Which of the following often causes hyperparathyroidism?

radiation involving the thyroid gland and neck area

19. Goiters occur more frequently in persons living in the:

Great Lakes or mountainous regions

20. A benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine is called:

pheochromocytoma

1. Which of the following describes a Colles' fracture?

The distal radius is broken.

2. What is a sign of a dislocation?

deformity at a joint

3. All of the following predispose to osteoporosis EXCEPT:

weight-bearing activity

4. How is Duchenne's muscular dystrophy inherited?

an X-linked recessive gene

5. Which of the following is characteristic of osteoarthritis?

Degeneration of articulating cartilage occurs in the large joints.

6. What is the typical joint involvement with rheumatoid arthritis?

bilateral small joints, symmetrical progression to other joints

7. What is a common effect of long-term use of glucocorticoids to treat rheumatoid arthritis?

osteoporosis

8. Which of the following distinguishes septic arthritis?

purulent synovial fluid present in a single, swollen joint

9. Which of the following may precipitate an attack of gout?

a sudden increase in serum uric acid levels

10. What is a common outcome of fibrosis, calcification, and fusion of the spine in ankylosing spondylitis?

rigidity, postural changes, and osteoporosis

11. What is the likely immediate result of fat emboli from a broken femur?

pulmonary inflammation and obstruction

12. Which statement defines a sprain? A tear in a ___________:

ligament

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