Strayer CH 17: Atlantic Revolutions and Their Echoes

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North American Revolution

1775-1787.
Involved an independence movement; colonial uprising against imperial power (British Monarchy). The cause was Britain's global struggle with France put them in debt and manipulated the American Colonies for revenue to pay off those debts by imposing taxes and tariffs without colonists' consent. The result:a republican rule over the monarchy by using Enlightenment ideas, in which it influenced the many revolutions to come all over the world such as the French Revolution.

French Revolution

1789-1815
Involved citizens rising against French Monarchy and the way the political and economic system was ran after it was inspired the North American Revolution. It was driven by sharp conflicts within French society ( aristocratic privileges) . The French citizens successfully overthrew the Bourbons(guillotine) of its absolute monarchy and resulted in a change in the socio-political structure( National Assembly formed from Third Estate, committees, running for public office), and established the nation-state. It also reduced the Catholic Church's power to be a place to do births, marriages, and deaths.

Haitian Revolution

1791-1804
Highly influenced by the French Revolution, it was a successful, slave revolt in the French island colony of St.Domingue. It was a spiral of violence that engulfed the colony for more than a decade. Power eventually gravitated toward the slaves under Toussaint Louverture( former slave) and was too great against the troubled France. IT was a unique revolution as it politically thrown off colonial rule, became the first non-European state to emerge from the Western colonialism in 1804. Economically, the plantation system was destroyed and there was redistribution of land to small farmers. As a continuation of the revolution pattern, it inspired other slave rebellions.

Spanish American Revolutions

1810-1825
Shaped by previous revolutions, it was thrust upon Creole elites in Spanish colonies as the monarchy was implementing a tightening control and higher taxes because of war on the mainland. It was a long process as it began very unorganized until Napoleon in 1808, deposed Spanish royalty and exiled Portuguese Royalty Brazil. The result was Latin Americans forced to take action for their independence( states began gaining independence in 1826). The class divisions, fear of social rebellion, and the impossible feat to unite their various states( long distances, deeply rooted traditions). The aftermath was the reversal in the relationship with North America as the U.S. became wealthier, democratic, stable, and industrialized. The Spanish colonies became impoverished, politically unstable, and dependent on foreign technology and investment.

Declaration Of The Rights Of Man And Citizen

Adopted by the National Assembly( formerly Third Estate); was a document recognizing natural rights and based on the ideas of the Enlightenment, American Declaration of Independence, and Rousseau's writings. IT furthered the ideas of freedom, equality, rule of law across Europe, abolished feudalism, and declared freedom of worship.

Napoleon Bonaparte

The French Revolution's influence was spread under the conquest of military general,Bonaparte; who gained popularity by seizing the power of the Directory in 1799. Known to be more radical and suppressed democratic elements; but also preserved civil equality( Napoleonic Codes), secular law, religious freedom, and promotion by merit. He declared himself the First Consul under a new constitution ( 4th constitution of France). He held a series of military campaigns around Europe, created the largest empire since the Romans, and ended feudalism. He was brought down by national resistance which ended the French Revolution in 1815.

Abolitionist Movement

Occurred during 1780-1890, slavery was largely criticized as it was influenced by the Enlightenment because, it violated human's natural rights and not necessary for economical progress. Religious groups( Quakers, Evangelicals) voiced their opposition to slavery.Thus, it eventually lost its legitimacy, and ended. IT was most powerful in Britain as it brought pressure on the government to shut down the slave trade, other countries soon followed suit ( Russia). It was highly resisted in the Southern US( led to civil war). The outcomes didn't benefit much of the freed slaves ( no redistribution of land or improved economic life)

Nationalism

an idea that nations had a distinct culture, territory, and deserved an independent political life. It came about as older identities and loyalties eroded but also reawakened older linguistic or cultural identities. Proved to be an infinitely flexible and powerful idea as it encouraged independence movements, political unification, competitive drive for colonies, and took on different political ideologies( good and bad).

"Vindication Of The Rights Of Women"

written by Englishwoman, Mary Wollstonecraft in 1792 that was one of the earliest books based on feminism. Wollstonecraft argued that women should have equal rights and emphasized access to education(universities, professions) that men have.

Maternal Feminism

the idea of a women's distinctive role as mothers to watch over was also a right to act in civil and political life. It was popular in France and was further expressed at the Seneca Falls Convention 1848.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

An American pioneer, social activist, and leading figure during the women's suffrage movement and drafted the meaning of new feminism as "all men and women are created equal" ( Declaration of Sentiments) at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848

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