If I test for the health of the one million Renal Corpuscles that are present in one
healthy Kidney, what process will I be testing?
Filtration (GFR - Glomerular Filtration
Rate ‐ dependents upon):
a. Effective Renal blood Flow.
b. Healthy Glomerulus
c. Healthy Bowman's capsule
What is a Nephron?
It is highly convoluted tubule. At the beginning of this tube blood is filtered.
What is the filtered blood at the beginning of the Nephron tubule called?
"Filtrate". The filtrate travels through
the hollow tube that is called the Nephron and eventually becomes Urine
What does Macula Densa serve as?
What does Macula Densa sense?
the levels of Sodium and other electrolytes
Where are the JG cells located?
Where are the JG cells located?
JG cells do what?
Produce and secrete "RENIN" after stimulation from the Macula
What is the JG apparatus (juxtamedullary apparatus) composed of?
Macula Densa + JG cells
What is the major location of the action of ADH (antidiuretic hormone)?
collecting duct via aquaporins (special receptors)
What is the role of the Renal Pelvis?
Is a collection of tubule that simply collect Urine
and coalesce together to form the Ureter
What epithelium lines the Ureter and the Urinary Bladder?
What is the major difference in the shape of size of the Loop of Henle in Cortical &
Juxtamedullary nephrons have a long loop of Henle (Cortical nephrons have a short loop of Henle)
Where do I find the Vasa Recta?
Following the long loop of Henle of the
Normally what protein is found in the Urine?
The first protein to appear in the Urine in a Kidney disease is?
Net filtration pressure that aids filtration at the Renal Corpuscle?
18 mm of Hg
Is filtration an active or a passive movement?
Passive process that does not require
What is the number of anastomosis in the Glomerulus?
What percentage of the Filtrate will become Urine?
1000 ml of filtrate is formed,
how much will eventually becomes urine? 10 ml. only 1% of the filtrate becomes Urine.
What happens to the 99% of the filtrate within the Nephron that does not become
It is reabsorbed by the Nephron into the Interstitial space and taken up by the capillaries that line alongside the Nephron (Peritubular network of capillaries)
What hormone is primarily responsible for the reabsorption of Sodium?
Where is Aldosterone produced and secreted from?
Zona Glomerulosa of the Adrenal Cortex
Who stimulates the Zona Glomerulosa?
How is Angiotensin 2 produced?
By the action of ACE (Angiotensin converting
enzyme) on Angiotensin 1
How is Angiotensin 1 produced?
By the action of Renin on Angiotensinogen
Who produes Angiotensinogen?
What hormone is responsible for the reabsorption of water from the Nephron?
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
Where is ADH produced?
Where is ADh secreted from?
Posterior Pituitary gland
What is excess of ADH termed?
In SIADH what will happen to the urinary output?
Less urinary output, more concentrated urine. Urine Specific gravity will be high
What is lack of ADH termed?
In Diabetes Insipidus what will happen to the urinary output?
More urinary output,less concentrated urine. Urine Specific gravity will be low
Can any substance be found in the Urine that is not filtered by the Nephron?
Yes,by the process of Secretion
What are the three zones observed in the cut section of the Kidney
a. Cortex (outer zone)
b. Medulla (middle zone)
c. Pelvis (inner most zone)
What are the three major processes that are involved in the creation of Urine by the
Counter current multiplier exchange mechanism happens at what location?
Loop of Henle.