Chap. 29: Dictatorships & The 2nd World War

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After WWI, authoritarian governments emerged in Europe. In Eastern Europe, only ____________ retained its parliamentary government.

Czechoslovakia.

Countries turned to these governments for the following reasons:

(1) Lack of tradition of self-government.
(2) Dictator would preserve national unity
(3) Large landowners looked for protection against radical political movements.

By the mid 1930s, all of the radical authoritarian regimes that had emerged in Europe (Italy, Soviet Union, & Germany) had one thing in common:

Profound hatred of Western Liberalism.

Germany and Italy would use a new form of government based on fascism and believed in:

(1) Expansionism/Nationalism
(2) Dynamic and violent leader
(3) Glorification of war and the military

New Economic Policy (NEP):

Established by Lenin. Reestablished limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry.

Stalin was able to achieve supreme power in the Soviet Union for the following reasons:

(1) Used Trotsky's enemies to get rid of him.
(2) Stalin allied with moderates who wanted to go slow at home.
(3) He then turned on his new allies and destroyed them.

The first five-year plan emphasized _________.

Heavy Industry.

Factors leading to the Soviet Union's industrial success were:

1) A sharp decrease in domestic consumption.
2) Forced labor.
3) Use of foreign experts.

Collectivization:

The forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into huge state controlled farms.
Stalin waged war on it for he distrusted the peasants because they owned their own land & wanted them under control of the state.

The ultimate goal of Stalin's five year plan was

To create a new socialist humanity.

Social programs like ______, _________, & _______ were established.

Free medical services, free education, & old age pension.

Unemployment was __________.

Virtually nonexistent.

Women were encouraged to _______ & ________.

Leave the home & enter the workplace.

Women received:

greater advancement through education and greater employment.

Culture was centered around glorifying _____ & _______.

Russian & Communist history.

Writers, artists, and movies all glorified ______ & ____.

Communism & Condemned the West.

The Great Purges:

The imprisonments and executions by Stalin.

One of the most important consequences of the Great Purge was the creation of __________.

A new generation of communists loyal to Stalin.

Mussolini would turn against the socialists with his _______ using violence.

Black Shirts.

He threatened to "________" and seize power.

March on Rome.

Mussolini came to power _________.

Legally.

At 1st, Mussolini's program included:

(1) Territorial Expansion
(2) Land Reform for Peasants
(3) Social Welfare reforms for workers

The Lateran Agreement:

Reorganized the Church in the Vatican City as an independent state.
He also had the support of The Pope & the Catholic Church.

Fascism was very similar to communism, except Fascism did not believe in:

A classless society.

In prison, Hitler wrote "Mein Kampf" or "My Struggle" and outlined three basic themes that he would use constantly:

(1) The importance of more German living space.
-- Was very angry over the Treaty of Versailles.
(2) Race and racial distinctions.
(3) The importance of a strong willed leader-dictator.

The most important factor in Hitler's rise to power was:

The Great Depression.

A master at propaganda, Hitler hammered away at these themes:

-- Slogans
-- Themes of national rebirth
-- Crimes of the Versailles Treaty
-- An emphasis on young Germans and the future.

Nuremberg Laws:

Deprived German Jews the rights of citizenship.
--Many Jews left or tried to leave Germany.

In the late 1930s, Hitler was popular for the following reasons:

(1) A modest Degree of Social Mobility
(2) His success in Foreign Policy
(3) Virtual elimination in unemployment
(4) Improvement in the average standard of living.

Hitler announced Germany had only peaceful intentions and pulled out of _________.

The League of Nations.

"Rump of Czech."

1939 This was the first act of aggression that could not be justified by self-determination.

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact in 1939 was a ten year truce between Germany and the USSR.

-- A secret agreement between the two nations was how to carve up Poland.
-- Great Britain and France vowed to attack Germany if it went after Poland.

Sub humans—people not considered humans.

-- Jews, Slavs, Poles, Russians, homosexual, mentally disabled, and Gypsies.

At first sub-humans were resettled or forcibly moved so the Germans could have their:

"Living Space."

Final Solution:

Extermination following resettlement that had caused too much overcrowding.

The Allies had three policies that led them to victory:

1. The United States concentrated on European victory first, then Japan.
2. The Americans and British put military needs before political questions, thus avoiding conflict over postwar settlements.
3. The Allies adopted the principle of "unconditional surrender" of Germany and Japan, denying Hitler the possibility of dividing his foes.

Germans were defeated at _________ in 1942.

Stalingrad.

The Battle of Coral Sea:

stopped the Japanese advance.

The Battle of Midway Island:

established American naval superiority in the Pacific.

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