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What are the two amino acids that start catecholamine synthesis

Tyrosine
Phenylalanine

What enzyme acts on tyrosine? coenzyme? product?

Tyrosine Hydroxylase
BH4
FOrms DOPA

What enzyme acts on DOPA? coenzyme? product?

DOPA Decarboxylase
PLP
Dopamin

What enzyme acts on dopamine? coenzyme? product?

Dopamine B-Hydroxylase
Vit C
NE

What enzyme acts on NE? coenzyme? product?

Phenylethanolamine N methyl transferase
SAM
Epinephrine

What causes parkinsons disease

loss of Dopamine producing cells

What is the treatment of Parkinsons disease?

L-DOPA

What enzymes are involved in Catecholamine degradation

MAO and COMT

What is the product of MAO and COMT

VMA

What are high urinary VMAs and Catecholamines indicative of

pheochromocytoma

What is pheochormocytoma

overproduction of catecholamines by a adrenal medulla tumor

What amino acid starts serotonin synthesis?

Tryptophan

What enzyme acts on tryptophan? coenzyme? product?

Tryptohpan hydroxylase
BH4
5-Hydroxytryptophan

What enzyme acts on Hydroxytryptophan? coenzyme? product?

AA Decarboxylase
PLP
Serotonin

What enzyme degrades serotonin? product

MAO
5-HIAA

What is carcinoid syndrome

Tumor of serotonin producing cells in the GI

What molecule is increased in the urine of a patient with carcinoid syndrome

5-HIAA

What is melatonin derived from?

Serotnin

What is serotonin derived from

tryptophan

What 3 reaction require BH4

Phenylalanin Hydroxylase (Phe to Tyr)
Tyrosine Hydroxylase (Tyr to DOPA)
Tryptophan Hydroxylase (Trp to 5 Hydroxytryptophan)

What would BH4 deficiency cause?

hyperphenylalaninemia
decreased NT synthesis (catecholamins serotonin)

What type of NT is GABA

inhibitory

What is GABA formed from?

glutamic acid

What enzyme forms GABA and what coenzyme

Glutamate decarboxylase
PLP

What enzyme produces histamine? cofactor? Input?

AA Decarboxylase makes histidine from histamine with PLP

What is the function of histamine

vasodilator

What is the action of antihistamines

reduce the ability of histamine to function as a signal

What is creatine synthesized from

SAM
ARginine
Glycine

What is the relationship of Creatine with ATP when the muscle is resting

Accepts P

What is the relationship of Creatine with ATP when the muscle is contracting

Donates P groups to ADP

What is creatine made into?

creatinine

What is the end product of creatine metabolism

creatinine

What molecule is used to track muscle mass and muscle atrophy through urine

creatinine and CK

What is NO synthesized from? Enzyme and coenzyme

Arginin
NO Synthase
Citrulline

What does NO do?

local vasodilation

What is deficient in albinism

melanin
tyrosinase enzyme

What three AA's make glutathione

Glutamate
Cysteine
Glycine

What is the use of glutathione

Detox of H2O2

What do 2 GSH form?

GSSG

What enzyme changes GSSG to GSH

Glutathione reductase

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