destroys living organisms-- destroys vegetative pathogens
disinfection is the use
of physical process or chemical agent to destroy vegetative bacteria
toxins ( on living organisms)
disinfection does not sestroy
disinfection is the
destruction or removal of vegitative pathogens but not bacterial endospores. Usually used on inanimate objects
the complete removal or destrution of all visable microorganisms . used on inanimate objects
sterilaztion is a process
that destroys or removes all viable microorganisms, including spores and viruses
sterilaztion can be either a
physical or chemical agent-- no life forms
what are some inanimate objects
surgical instruments, commerically packeaged foods, etc.
chemicals applied to the bodysurface to destroy or inhibit vegatative pathogens. - iodine on surgigical equipment, soap and water
antisepsis can be used on
skin and mucous membranes
chemical agents ( antiseptics) destroy or inhibit
sanitation is the
mechanical removal of microorganism debris to reduce contamination-- soap and water, uv lights, washing clothes
the numbers of microorganisms
that type of agent is sanitation
mode of action
lead to choice of which agent to use
prions are killed by
type of dry heat
incidneration and dry oven ( both are types of sterilaztion )
moist heat sterilization
steam under pressure ( autoclave)
moist heat disinfection
boiling water, hot water, and pasterization
temporarily prevents the growth of microbes ) bacteriostatic and fungistatic)-- refridge temp
static agents stand
still ( not kill)
kill-- 10 % bleach
cital agents is the
killing or destroying of a microorganism ( germicide & bactericide)
and acid fast stain and is hard to kill
gram negitive are
to disinfectants and antiseptics- they are hard to kill
very resistant , cell wall, waxy, many lipids-- example tb, we used acid fast staining
endospores, prozoan cysts are
hard to kill
steam under pressure, efficents at getting rid of spores
degermination is used on
human skin to reduce the number of microorganisma, shower or chloro preps
what agents are degermination
physcial and chemical
give an exampe of degermination
wiping with alcohol or iodine before and injection
The vegetative cell state is the form in which an organism is able to grow and divide continuously, given favourable conditions. Unlike endospores, vegetative cells are relatively poor at surviving environmental stresses such as high temperature and drying.
soap and deterents , the work on surface tension, to prevent collapes
the goal is intermittent sterilization, will not destroy spores, used for heat sensitive media, cannned foods, exposure to steam 30 to 60 minutes , cooled, reexposed to heat, may take several days
disinfection of beverages, exposed to 71.7 degrees c, for 15 seconds, stops fermentation, prevents transmission of milk born diseases, salmonella, campylobacter, listeria, myobacteria, ( milk industry, wine, breweries) , destroys enzymes by disrubting hydrogen bonds
listeria, slows bacteria down -- doesn't kill them
removes microbes and spores from liquids and air, perforated membrane , pore size vary, applications- liquid that are sensitive to heat, serum, vaccines and media
examples of pf phenols( phenoliac)
some bacteria , viruses, and fungi -- low to intermidiate, can be absorbed by skin, can cause cns damage, poor solubility , expensive --- vary based on functional group attached to aromatic ring, hexachloane rophene, triclorsan( over used) , microbial, ingredient in kitty litter and soap, disrupts cell wall and membr
bacterial spores are killed in a
another word for vegetative
opposite of vegetative
determine by mode of action, temp. , ph, interfering agents - solvents, debris, saliva, blood, fecus,
mode of action can kill an organism by wiping out
cell wall or membrane, nuclecic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, protein function
when you think of protein function thin of
blocking of enzymes
A newborn female developed extensive vesicular and ulcerative lesions over her face and chest. What is the most likely cause of her symptoms? How would you determine the viral cause of this disease without doing a viral culture?
You are quite right to consider Herpes Simplex Virus in this case, and in a newborn the most likely scenario is vertical transmission from the mother. However, you also need to consider some other diagnoses before you jump in with both feet. Also on my list would be Varicella Zoster infection (which would be more likely if the child is immunosuppressed, and obviously less aggressive that HSV), but would want to rule out other causes such as staph scalded skin syndrome (particularly worrying would be group B streps, but hopefully the mother has had a vaginal swab during the pregnancy), and I would also want to rule out the Stevens Johnson Syndrome (less common and always involves the mucous membranes, but should be considered, especially if the child was post vit K or anti-D).
In order to prove it is viral without cultures I would take venous blood and look for a raised inflamatory markers such as CRP & take a WCC, in particular a lymphocytosis (as opposed to a neutrophillia which you are more likely to see in bacterial infections). In addition you may be able to perform serology (anti-virus antibodies detectable in the blood), or viral PCR (also in the plasma, not a viral culture and probably the most sensitive and specific method)!
Beyond that I am a bit lost as to making the diagnosis! I guess therapeutic trial is appropriate in this case, especially since HSV can be a) a killer, and b) cause permanent blindness.
Three days before a nurse developed meninngococcemia, she assisted with intubation of a patient with a Neisseria meningitidis infection. Of the 24 medical personnel involved, only this nurse became ill. The nurse recalled that she was exposed to nasopharyngeal secretions and did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis. What two mistakes did the nurse make? How is meningitis transmitted?
You already named the two mistakes, and I quote: "she was exposed to nasopharyngeal secretions and did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis". So why are you asking questions you've already answered?
I don't know that the nurse wasn't wearing a mask. I don't know where the secretions were on her but based on my own experience with this procedure, I'd assume they landed somewhere on her face or upper body and that she was not wearing a mask. Unthinkable that this would be considering it was an intubation.
"how is meningitis transmitted?" -- And you are speaking of bacterial meningitis. Meningitis can be spread via nose and throat secretions (coughing, sneezing, and kissing). However, meningitis is not considered to be a highly contagious disease and casual contact or breathing in the air where a person with meningitis has been normally would not expose someone to meningitis because the causative organisms cannot live outside the body for very long. There's both acute and subacute meningitis
Discuss 5 factors that have influenced the increasing development of resistant microbial strains.
increased use of antibiotics
- use of antibiotics on animals eg cattle. not sure of exact figure but i think at one point like 70% of antibiotics were used on animals
- failure to complete a dose of antibiotics
- taking a smaller dose or the correct dose less frequently
- poor hygiene, as it leads to the spread of bacteria which would not otherwise be present
For each item listed below, select a sterilant that you feel is the most suitable and effective for that item. Tell why you selected each sterilant.
a. plastic Petri dished to be used for nutrient media
b. glass tubes of bacterial cultures to be discarded
c. sterile milk
d. dozens of reusable glass pipets
e. bone tissue for grafting
f. room air
g. hospital mattresses
h. biopsy tissue for histology analysis
i. plastic respiratory therapy equipment and arthroscopes
If a splinter of wood were to enter the skin and introduce microorganisms to the site, what specific early and late events of inflammation would respond to that newly infected tissue? Describe the sequence of signs and symptoms, vascular and tissue events, and cells and mediators involved.
Discuss the major histocompatability complex with regard to its:
c. relationship to specific cell markers,
d. role in regulation of immune reactions
termal death time
the heat tolerance is assessed by exposing bacteria to a fixed temperature for various time periods
(medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to radiation from a radioactive substance
broad spectrum antimicrobial agent
gas used to sterilize heat sensitive ingredients
agent that slows or stops the growth of bacteria
capable of killing bacteria. Antibiotics, antiseptics, and disinfectants can be bactericidal.
a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
Subjective indications of disease reported by the patient.- pain, dizziness,itching
Objective evidence of disease observed on physical exams- abnormal pulse,fever,sweatingor pallor
ability of disease to be transferred between animals and humans
colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended