any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
the state of having been made use of
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering and used newer and better inventions
when trees and crops are planted together, creating a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between them.
the raising of plants or animals, such as fish or shellfish, in or at the bottom of the sea, a lake, a river, or other body of water
a fishing technique in which the ocean floor is literally scraped by heavy nets that smash everything in their path. This is very detremental to the ecosystem.
Corn that is made using genetic engineering techniques. It contains a gene from a bacteria that prevents certain insects from eating the corn.
a cotton crop that has been genetically modiﬁed, using bacterial genes
unwanted marine creatures that are caught in the nets while fishing for another species (ex. dolphins)
fish farming in which fish are caught in the wild and not raised in captivity for consumption.
the process of cutting down all the trees in an area at once
the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources
the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (by eating)
plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
in fishing, the use of long lines that have baited hooks and will be taken by numerous aquatic organisms
the results in the body of poor nutrition; undernutrition, overnutrition, or any nutrient deficiency
the additional or extra benefit associated with an action
the extra cost of producing one more unit of output
markets and prices link all the characteristics of the system together
an area in which a particular mineral is concentrated
the act of extracting ores or coal (nonrenewable resources) from the earth
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
Type of surface mining that uses explosives and larger machinery called draglines to remove the top of a mountain to expose seams of coal underneath a mountain.
Raw materials supplied by nature that come from the earth, water, or air and are used to produce goods
resources that cannot be replaced, such as fossil fuels
refers to when farmers plant seeds without using a plow to turn the soil. Results in a decreased rate of soil erosion; reduced need for equipment, fuel, and fertilizer; and significantly less time required for tending crops
old growth forest
a very old woodland uninfluenced by human activity; usually over 200 years without disruption
a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined
the use of natural substances rather than chemical fertilizers and pesticides to enrich the soil and grow crops
Removing minerals such as gravel, sand, and metal ores by digging them out of the earth's surface and leaving an open pit.
when grass is consumed by animals at a faster rate than it can grow
method of extracting mineral ore by hand using simple tools like picks, shovels, and pans
the activity of protecting something from loss or danger
the creation of value or wealth by producing goods and services
Grasslands and open woodlands suitable for livestock grazing
Controlled burns (prescribed burns)
technique sometimes used in forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement. Controlled burning is conducted during the cooler months to reduce fuel buildup and decrease the likelihood of serious hotter fires. Controlled burning stimulates the germination of some desirable forest trees, thus renewing the forest. Some cones, such as sequoia and serotinous require heat from fire to open cones to disperse seeds.
In general it is assumed to be any type of agriculture that requires high external energy inputs to achieve high yields, and generally relies upon technological innovations, uniform high-yield crops, and labor efficiencies
The traditional method of farming in which soil is prepared for planting by completely inverting it with a moldboard plow. Subsequent working of the soil with other implements is usually performed to smooth the soil surface. Bare soil is exposed to the weather for some varying length of time depending on soil and climatic conditions.
the practice of growing different crops in succession on the same land chiefly to preserve the productive capacity of the soil.
The cutting down and removal of all or most of the trees in a forested area. Deforestation can erode soils, contribute to desertification and the pollution of waterways, and decrease biodiversity through the destruction of habitat.
The transformation of land once suitable for agriculture into desert. Desertification can result from climate change or from human practices such as deforestation and overgrazing.
a large fishing net supported by floats or attached to a drifter that is allowed to drift with the tide or current. They are placed by ships and are left free-floating until retrieved. These nets usually target schools of pelagic fish.
A name given, early in 1935, to the region in the south-central United States afflicted by drought and dust storms, including parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma, and resulting from a long period of deficient rainfall combined with loosening of the soil by destruction of the natural vegetation; dust bowl describes similar regions in other parts of the world.
the resources that are needed for humans to survive, and be economically active. All of which is provided by the ecosystem.
A place where fish are bred for commercial purposes.
The science or practice of planting, managing, and caring for forests.
A hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from the accumulated remains of ancient plants and animals and used as fuel. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases generated by burning fossil fuels are considered to be one of the principal causes of global warming.
A belt of recreational parks, farmland, or uncultivated land surrounding a community: preserved from urban development
The application of science to increasing agricultural productivity, including the breeding of high-yield varieties of grains, the effective use of pesticides, and improved fertilization, irrigation, mechanization, and soil conservation techniques.
Tax paid by consumers for products or services that are not environmentally friendly. Intended purpose of the green tax is to offset the negative impact resulting from the use of non-green products and services.
a forest fire that burns the humus, may not appear at the surface
a place in the upper mantle of the earth at which hot magma from the lower mantle upwells to melt through the crust usually in the interior of a tectonic plate to form a volcanic feature
Began about 1760 in England and later in the other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.
Integrated Pest Management
The use of all appropriate techniques of controlling pests in a coordinated manner that enhances, rather than destroys, natural controls. If pesticides are part of the program, they are used sparingly and selectively so as not to interfere with natural competitors
The growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. Benefits arise because crops exploit different soil, water, light, and other resources, or mutually interact with one another, to raise yields or control pests and weeds.
the action of applying water to land in order to supply crops and other plants with necessary water. Sometimes nutrients may be applied via irrigation as well.
Any natural resource (as wood or solar energy) that can be replenished naturally with the passage of time (usually in days or years)
Ex: Biomass, water, geothermal, wind, solar
Accumulation of salts in soil that can eventually make the soil unable to support plant growth
A collection of genetically diverse seeds
Hedge or fence of trees designed to lessen the force of the wind and reduce erosion
The forestry practice of leaving a few full-grown trees in order to create shelter for emergent seedlings
Second growth forests
Areas where cutting has occurred and a new, younger forest has arisen
Harvesting only mature trees of certain species and size; usually more expensive then clear-cutting but it is less disruptive for wildlife and often better for forest regeneration
When mature trees are cut over a period of time; this leaves mature trees, which can reseed the forest, in place
The branch of forestry dealing with the development and care of forests
Slash and burn
This method involves farmer clearing the land by burning existing vegetation and planting crops in the ashes
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Good; usually burn only undergrowth and lead litter on forest floor; spare most mature trees; help prevent worse fires, allow vegetation to flourish
Rock and other waste materials removed as impurities when waste mineral material is separated from the metal in an ore. (gangue)
Traditional subsistence agriculture
When each family in a community grows crops for themselves and rely on animal and human labor to plant and harvest crops.
Shaping the land to create level shelves of earth to hold water and soil; requires extensive hand labor or expensive machinery, but it enables farmers to farm very steep hillsides
Production of enough crops or livestock for a farm family's survival and, in good years, a surplus to sell or put aside for hard times.
Planted and managed tracts of trees of the same age that are harvested for commercial use.
Method of forest management in which trees of different species in a given stand are maintained at many ages and sizes to permit continuous natural regeneration (selective deforestation)
Not getting ENOUGH adequate food and nourishment
The social process whereby cities grow and societies become more highly populated