Ancestors of the Romans; migrated to Italy in 800 B.C.; Settled along Tiber River over 7 low hills where they herded and farmed.
Romulus and Remus
According to legend, they were twin brothers who founded Rome. Highly regarded by Romans because these twins were supposedly sons of a Latin woman and the war god, Mars
Greek colonists who lived mostly in Northern Europe
They migrated from the Alps or Asia Minor
Ruled central Italy and Rome
"That which belongs to the people"
People chose officials
Romans believed this prevented individuals from gaining too much power
The most powerful governing party in the early republic
highly influenced republic laws
Members of landholding upper class
The 300 members of the Senate were originally only patricians
Supervised the business of the government and commanded armies
The two consuls were expected to approve each others decisions
Served 1 term
[In event of war] senate would choose a ruler who has complete control over a government
Granted power for 6 months
Farmers, merchants, artisans and traders made a large part of population with little influence
There efforts to gain power shaped the early republic's politics
Plebeians gained the right to elect their own officials
Could veto laws harmful to Plebeians
Plebeians got involved with making more officials get in- until they were finally allowed into government
To block (mostly used with laws)
Family (power structure)
The basic unit of Roman society
They were polytheistic. Many gods and goddesses.
This is the basic military unit. It contained 5000 (give or take) men.
City-state on Northern coast of Africa. It ruled over an empire that stretched across North Africa and the western Mediterranean. Rome fought 3 wars against Carthage.
Called himself the "Exalted one" and Senate declared him the first citizen. Yet, he did not use the title of King (Romans hated this title). He just exercised absolute power.
His original name, before he changed it, was OCTAVIAN
The population count. This allowed the empire to record all who should be taxed.
Caligula and Nero
Emperors before Augustus; considered to be evil and insane.
-Caligula appointed his favorite horse as consul
-Nero would viciously persecute Christians, as well as blaming them for setting a fire which burned out most of Rome
HE wrote the epic poem Aeneid, he tried to show Roman past heroic like Greece. The epic was linked to Homer's explaining how Aeneas escaped Troy to find Rome.
The epic poem explaining Rome's heroic past of Aeneas escaping Troy to find Rome.
He wrote gentle satires, he used playful wit to attack human folly.
To make fun of
Historian who aroused patriotic feeling and restored traditional Roman virtues by recalling images of Rome's past.
-Examples of tales recounted: Horatius and Cinnatus
Latin word for "Phoenician". The Punic wars were fought between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.)
1st Punic war
Rome defeated Carthage and won the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
2nd Punic War
Carthaginians sought revenge, they surprised the Romans who expected an invasion from the South. Rome still won
Carthaginian general during 2nd war. Led army and elephants on march to invade Rome. 1/3 army of Carthaginian army was lost during march...
3rd Punic War
Rome destroyed Carthage any survivors were killed or sold. Romans poured salt over land so nothing could ever grow there and became masters of western Mediterranean.
Establishing control over foreign lands and peoples. Romans were committed to this.
Meaning "Our Sea". Romans called the Mediterranean this.
the empire covered all the land touching the sea
Huge estates bought by wealthy families. As Romans captured more people, they became slaves on this estate.
Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus
2 young brother patricians among the 1st to attempt reform.
Tiberius was a tribune who attempted to help the poor (farmers)
10 years later, Gaius became tribune and asked for more reforms.
Senate was scared of losing power so they set of a riot that killed the two brothers
Wars fought between people in a country. Rome's civil war debated who should hold the power the senate or popular political leaders
Ambitious, military leader. HE emerged as dictator, for life, after civil war
Caesar and Pompey used to rule Roman politics together but then they both became leaders of opposing forces in another civil war.
"Veni vidi vici"
Caesar announced this"I came, I saw, I conquered"
Caesar introduced this new calendar based on the Egyptians. It was called the Julian calendar... with minor changed it later became our current calendar.
Good emperor who codified Roman law, making it the same for all provinces (A.D. 96- A.D. 180= many good emperors)
Read philosophy while leading wars. He was close to being Plato's philosopher king!
"Roman Peace". Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands from Euphrates river to Britain.
Rome's largest race course. Chariots thundered around an oval with sharp turns
Many were slaves who had been trained to fight, battling each other and sometimes in groups. If the crowd didn't like them, they were killed.
Historian who bitterly wrote about Augustus and his successors, who, he felt, had destroyed Roman liberty.
Picture made from chips of colored stone or glass. These (and frescoes) help us to learn about Rome.
The application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines. Romans excelled in engineering.
Bridge-like stone structures that carried water from the hills into Roman cities.
Greek- Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Proposed that earth was the center of the universe