Holy month when Muslims are expected to fast from sun up to sun down as part of the Five Pillars of Islam.
a major river in Southwest Asia; with the Euphrates River it defined the "land between the rivers" known as Mesopotamia
Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)
a Jewish farming village in Palestine whose members own everything in common, sharing labor, income, and expenses.
a writing system in which pictures and symbols are used to represent words and sounds.
a Sumerian system of writing, in which wedge-shaped symbols were used.
a raw product used to manufacture other products
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
The world's longest river, which flows northward through East Africa into the Mediterranean Sea
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)
a pilgrimage to Mecca that most Muslims try to make at least once in a lifetime.
the title used by rulers of the Muslim community from 632 until 1924.
Founder of Islamic religion and is regarded as a messenger and prophet of God
A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad
A branch of Islam whose members support the descendants of Muhammad as his rightful successors
one of the first inhabitants of Mesopotamia.
a member of a group of mountain people who live in Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.
in Judaism, the Day of Atonement
a monotheistic religion, founded by Abraham, the Torah is its sacred text, its members are called Jews.
a monotheistic religion, founded by Muhammad, the Koran is its sacred text, its members are called Muslims.
a monotheistic religion, founded by Jesus, the Bible is its sacred text, its members are called Christians.