8th Grade Earth Science CH 15B

16 terms by HistoryFugue 

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Sedimentary Rocks

Fossil

any trace or remains of a living organism that has been preserved by natural means

Paleontology

Study of fossilized animals and plants

Precipitate

Nonclastic sedimentary rock formed when minerals crystalize and sink to the bottom of still water

Evaporite

Nonclastic sedimentary rock formed when minerals crystalize in still water and left behind when the water evaporates

Halite

Common or Rock salt

Salt Dome

halite deposited deep underground as a vertical cylindrical mass forced upward from below by great pressure

Uses for Limestone

Neutralizing acidic soils, building roads, making cement

Limestone

containing mainly calcite -- precipitates directly out of seawater

Matrix

material in which something else is enclosed or embedded

Breccia

similar to conglomerate but fragments are sharp and angular and often found in fine-grained matrix like clay

Conglomerate

coarsest grade of clastic sedimentary rock, containing gravels, pebbles, cobbles, large boulders held together by mass of cemented sand grains -- most often contain quartz

Sandstone

similar to breccia and conglomerate but the fragments are smaller -- has porosity

Siltstone

one of two types of clastic sedimentary rock with smallest particles (microscopic) -- does not split easily into thin sheets

Shale

one of two types of clastic sedimentary rock with smallest particles (microscopic) -- splits easily into thin sheets, usually gray, may also be white, brown, red, green, black

Porosity

The percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of open spaces.

Permeable

ability of a rock to permit liquids to pass through pores, happens when pores are interconnected

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