Valgus Stress Test
Tests the laxity of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). Valgus stress is applied to the knee fully extended and at 30 degrees of felxion
Varus Stress Test
Test the laxity of the laterial collateral ligament (LCL). Varus stress is applied on the medial joint line laterally in attempt to open the lateral side of the knee
Tests the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Knee is in 30 degrees flexion with athlete on back. One hand on the distal thigh, the other on the proximal aspect of the tibia and attempting to move it anteriorly. A positive test occurs if there is unchecked anterior movement of the tibia
Apley's Compression Test
Test's for a meniscus tear. Athlete is laying face down and the affected leg is at 90 degrees. Pressure is placed down and side to side rotation. Positive test occurs is there is pain. Medial meniscus tear is noted during external rotation, lateral during internal.
Tests for fracture. Gentle percussive blow applied to the bottom of the heel sending vibrations through leg that may result in pain from a fracture.
Anterior Drawer Test
Test for extent of injury to anterior talofibular ligament primarily and to other lateral ligaments secondarily. Tibia pushed backwards as calcaneus it pulled forwards. Positive test occurs if the foot slides forward.
Talar Tilt test
Tests the extent of an inversion or eversion injury. Foot positioned at 90 degrees, lower leg stabilized and calcaneus is inverted. Excessive motion of the talus at 90 degrees indicates injury to the calcaneofibular and possibly the anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments. Excessive motion in inversion with the ankle plantarflexed indicates a sprain of the anterior talofibular ligament.
Tests for tightness in hip flexors. athlete is on back, legs fully extended. One thigh is brought to the chest, flattening the spine. The extended thigh should be flat on the table, if not then there is tightness in the hip flexors.
Straight Leg Raises
Tests for tightness in the hip extensors. Athlete is on their back with one leg lifted flexing the hip. If the leg cannot be flexed to 90 degrees, there is tightness in the hip extensors. Can also indicate problems in the low back or sacroiliac joint.