Early Islamic Empires Honors

37 terms by JamieAranoff13 

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Islam

the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran

Muslim

The Monotheistic religion of Islam

Arab

a member of a Semitic people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories who speaks Arabic and who inhabits much of the Middle East and northern Africa

Muhammed

Founder of Islamic religion, Believed to be God's last prophet

Arabian Peninsula

Area of which Islam was born. Dry, Desert like

Bedouins

Arab nomads, based on the Arabian Peninsula. The tribe Muhammed was brought up by

Hijra

The journey led by Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam.

Revelation

the last book of the New Testament

Mecca

City where Muhammed took over after returning from Bedouin. Muhammed was originally from here and it was a large center for trade throughout the Middle East

Medina

The City that Muhammed took his followers to strengthen their religion and returned years later to Mecca

Prophet

Messanger from God

Quran

The exact words of what God's angle told Muhammed. A sacred text for Muslims

Sharia

Teachings from the Quran as well as the actions of Muhammed

Ka'ba

Holy site for Muslims in Mecca that contained a "holy rock" built by Abraham There must be peace at all times around this area what many Muslims make a journey to

People of the book

What Muslims believe Jews and Christians are

Five Pillars

The basis of Muslim life and what it's followers should live by

Shahada

Declaration of Fate

Ottoman Turks

captured Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States which becomes a catalyst for the expansion of language and art. One of the Splinter dynasties

Safavids

A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs. One of the Splinter dynasties

Salat

prayer 5 times a day
facing Kaba (Mecca)
cleansing ritual before prayer
most important
repeating parts of the Quran

Zakat

pillar of islam; muslims are required to pay a tax yearly on property and walth, and this is to be distributed to the poor

Sawm

the third pillar of Islam is fasting (primarily during the month of Ramadan)

Hajj

the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah

mosque

(Islam) a Muslim place of worship

minaret

tower used to call Muslims to prayer

caliph

the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth

rightly guided caliphs

The frist four caliphs. Abu Bakr,Umar, Uthamn, Ali spread Islam 4,000 miles

shia

one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam, the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad

sunni

one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam, a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad

umayyads

A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.

ali

the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites

abbassids

a dynasty of calphis ruling at Baghdad, a.d. 750-1258 claiming descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammed

delhi sultanate

A Muslim leader of Ghur who defeated Hindu armies made Delhi, the third largest city of India, his capital.

sultan

the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)

dome of the rock

Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock

seljuk turks

nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly

mughal

Nomads who lived in the Indian subcontinent and established a powerful empire there, one of the nomads who invaded the Indian subcontinent in the 16th century and established a powerful empire there

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