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interphase

nucleus appears normal and the cell is performing its usual cellular functions

interphase

cell is increasing all of its components, including organelles as the mitochondria, ribosomes and centrioles

where does DNA replication occur

end of interphase

chromosomes which contain DNA are duplicated and contain two chromatids (sister chromatids) held together at the

Centromere

the nucleus divides during

Mitosis

cytoplasm divides is called

cytokinesis

what happens during cytokinesis

two daughter cells are produced

during sexual production another form of division occurs

meiosis

Meiosis is a part of

gametogenesis production of gametes(sex cells)

results of meiosis

daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell

results of mitosis

daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and genetic material as the parent cell

what can chromosomes exchange during cross over

genetic material

how many stages are there to the cell cycle

4

name the four stages

G-1
S
G-2
M

what occurs during G-1 stage

growth

what occurs during S stage

chromosomes are duplicated

what occurs during G-2 stage

prepares for cell division

what occurs during M stage

cell divides

explain why it is called the cell cycle process

ordered sequence of events that extends from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until it is own division into 2 cells

Mitosis

nuclear division that results in two new nuclei, each having the same number of chromosomes as the original nucleus

parental cell

the cell that divides

daughter cell

results of parental cells dividing

If parental cell has 46 chromosomes how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have following mitosis

46

when cell division begins, chromatin starts to condense and compact to form

visible rodlike sister chromatids held together at the centromere

DNA replication results in

duplicated chromosome, that consists of two sister chromatids held together at a centromere

spindle

a structure that appears and brings orderly distribution of chromosomes to the daughter cell nuclei

spindle

has a fiber that stretch between two poles(end), bundles of microtubules, protein cylinders found in the cytoplasm that can assemble and disassemble

centrosome

main microtubule organizing center of the cell, divides before mitosis so that each pole of spindle has a pair of centrosome

nucleus

large organelle containing the chromosomes and acting as a control center for the cells

Chromosome

rod shaped body in the nucleus seen during mitosis and meiosis that contains DNA and hereditary units or genes

nucleolus

organelle found inside the nucleus, composed largely of RNA for ribosome formation

chromatids

the two identical parts of a chromosome following DNA replication

centromere

constriction where duplicates (sister chromatids) of a chromosome are held together

centrosome

central microtubule organizing center of cells

centriole

short cylinder organelle in animal cells that contain microtubules and associated with formation of the spindle during cell division

Aster

short radiating fibers produced by the centrioles important during mitosis and meiosis

what are the phases of mitosis

prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase

early prophase

centrosomes have duplicated, chromatin is condensing into chromosomes and nuclear envelope is fragmenting

prophase

nucleolus has disappeared and duplicated chromosomes are visible, centrosome begins moving apart and spindle is in process

metaphase

chromatids are attached to a spindle fiber (sister chromatid), chromosomes are aligned at the equator

anaphase

sister chromatids part and become daughter chromosomes that move toward spindle poles, each pole receives the same number and kinds of chromosome as the parental cell

telophase

daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear. chromosomes will become chromatin

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm accompanies mitosis, begins in anaphase, continues in telophase and reaches completion by the start of the next interphase

cytokinesis in animal cells

a cleavage furrow, an indentation of the membrane between the daughter nuclei, begins as anaphase draws to a close.

meiosis

form of nuclear division in which the chromosome number is reduced by half

diploid cell

nucleus contains homologous chromosomes
(look alike and carry the genes for the same traits

Meiosis prophase 1

chromosomes have duplicated, homologous chromosomes pair during synapsis and crossing over occurs

Meiosis prophase 11

cells have one chromosome from each (hp)

meiosis metaphase 1

homologous pairs align independently at the equator

meiosis metaphase 11

chromosomes align at the equator

meiosis anaphase 1

homologous chromosomes separate and move towards the pole

meiosis anaphase 11

sister chromatids separate and become daughter chromosomes

meiosis telophase 1

daughter cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair

meiosis telophase 11

spindles disappears, nuclei from and cytokinesis takes place

daughter cells

meiosis results in four haploid cells

interkinesis

chromosomes still consist of two chromatids

deletion

chromosome is shorter than usual because some portion is missing

duplication

chromosome is longer than usual because some portion is present twice over

inversion

chromosome is normal in length but some portion runs in the opposite direction

translocation

two chromosomes have switched portions and each switched portion is on the wrong chromosome

turner syndrome

ovaries never become functional
XO

Poly-X syndrome

47 chromosomes, no apparent physical abnormalities
XXX

klinefelter syndrome

testes are underdeveloped, and breasts may be enlarged
XXY

Jacobs syndrome

males are usually taller then average, tend to have speech and reading problems
XY

s stage

during what stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occurs

anaphase

name the phase of cell division during which separation of sister chromatids occurs

cytokinesis

by what process does the cytoplasm of a human cell separates

propase

name the phase of cell division when duplicated chromosomes first appear

reproductive organ

where in humans would you expect to find meiosis taking place

homologous

what do you call chromosomes that look alike and carry genes for the same traits

anaphase

if homologues are separating, what phase is this

12

if the parental cell has 24 chromosomes, how many does each daughter cell have at the completion of meiosis 11

meiosis 1

name the type of cell division during which homologues pair

mitosis

name the type of cell division described by 2n---->2n

meiosis 11

does metaphase of mitosis, meiosis 1 or meiosis 11 have the haploid number of chromosomes at the equator of the spindle

when during the human life cycle is the diploid number of chromosomes restored

when the egg and sperm unite fertilazation

how does the alignment of chromosomes differ between metaphase of mitosis and metaphase of meiosis 1

in mitosis chromosomes align at the metaphase plate. In meiosis 1 homologous pairs align at the metaphase plate

a student is simulating meiosis 1 with homologous that are red-long and yellow-long. Describe the appearance of two non sister chromatids following cross over

you get recombinant chromosomes either all red or yellow and with crossing over you would get a chromosome that is part red and part yellow

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