Polk - Lincoln

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Manifest Destiny

The belief of patriotism in the United States, of spreading democracy and beliefs throughout the continent.

Aroostock/Lumberjack War

"War" over land on the New Brunswick/Maine boundary, where Americans wanted the prime timberland and the British wanted to build a military road.

Camanche Indian

Raiders that often attacked plantations

Emprasario Contracts

Mexican contracts that gave the right to settle in Texas in exchange for recruiting and taking responsibility for new settlers

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

General that takes over Mexico as dictator and begins to enforce the strict laws.

Goliad Massacre

Santa Ana orders the massacre of all prisoners of war after clashing with Texan forces.

Battle of San Jacinto River

Battle in which Sam Houston and his Texan forces take Santa Anna by surprise and destroy his army.

Francis Parkman

Author who wrote about his experiences with "The Oregon Trail: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky-Mountain Life."

Oregon

British territory pursued by the U.S.

Henry Clay

Politician who is "tone-deaf" to the expansionist issues and hardly mentions California at all.

John C. Calhoun

First politician to make the Annexation of Texas/Expansionism the key issue of the Election of 1844 - "nullifier"

James K. Polk

The "Dark Horse"

Oregon Trail

Stem of a variety of branching trails from Independence, MO to the Columbia River Valley

James Birney

Leader of Liberty Party, which runs for the first time.

Polk Doctrine

Polk's enforcing of the Monroe Doctrine, prohibiting all European territory in America.

Hudson's Bay Company

Largest British settlement company involved in the Northwest.

Four Point Plan

Polk addresses his most important goals: lower the tariff, restore the ITC, and acquire OR and CA

Spot Resolutions

Abraham Lincoln tried to determine the exact location Santa Ana's attack to see if the U.S. should declare war.

Stephen W. Kearny

General sent to take Santa Fe, sweeping across the Southwest.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Nicholas Trist is sent to negotiate this treaty ending the Mexican-American War.

Veracruz

General Winfield Scott beaches his navy at this city.

Robert E. Lee

American sent as a spy to follow the Mexican Army on the paths to Chapultepec.

John C. Fremont

General who was trying to take California and create the Bear Flag Republic.

John Slidell

Sent by Polk to Mexico City. He had the "doomed mission" to offer Mexico money for territory and special deals, which fails and exacerbates the conflict.

Walker's Tariff

Polk lowers the tariff rate to protest Clay.

Independent Treasury System

Polk wanted to restore this bank, because everyone was stuck with no place to hold money after Tyler's veto.

Richard Pakenham

British ambassador to the US who Polk offers a boundary settlement for Oregon at the 49'40" as a compromise.

John Jacob Astor

Established a fur-trading empire in Oregon

Hall Jackson Kelley

Methodist missionary that reached Oregon Territory with Nathaniel Wyeth.

cholera

Disease that killed many pioneers

Native Americans

Acted as guides, instead of misleadingly shown as radiers and attackers of the Pioneers.

Oregon Fever

Pioneers settling the American Eden in the west had "_________________."

Bear Flag Republic

California's failed attempt to cede from Mexico like Lone Star Republic because of the Mexican-American War

Florida Purchase Treaty

1819 Treaty in which Spain releases its claims north of the 42nd parallel.

Alamo

Santa Ana's army massacred everybody inside of this Fort after 10 days, including Davy Crockett, James Bowie, and William Travis.

Steven Austin

Begins the process of emprasario contracts and cheap land.

Sam Houston

President of the Lone Star Republic and organized Texas into a state.

John O'Sullivan

Magazine editor who coined the term "Manifest Destiny."

Adams-Onis

The U.S. originally released Texas claims after this treaty.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

Resolution to the Aroostock War in 1842.

Daniel Webster

Forges Ben Franklin's detailed map of Maine.

Ranchers

Competed with trappers and hunters for land.

Expansionism

Key national issue in the 1844.

Zachary Taylor

Given orders to set up fort at the Rio Grande, after Santa Ana kills American citizens.

Buenavista

Zachary Taylor advanced south from the Rio Grande and defeats Santa Ana for the first time at this battle.

Nueces River

Mexico demands a border at this river, north of the Rio Grande.

Wilmot Proviso

Bill proposed by a Democrat senator that would prevent slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico.

Lewis Cass

Ran for president in 1848, being an extreme expansionist and believing in states' rights.

Popular Sovereignty

Douglas's belief that people could make choices to determine states' rights on the issue of slavery.

Free Soil Movement

Movement led by Martin van Buren attempting to diverge abolitionist and pro-slavery voters into separate voting blocks.

Gadsden Purchase

Purchase allowing a railroad built in Arizona.

California Gold Rush

Sparked by gold in Sutter's Mill in 1849.

Salmon Chase

Ohio congressman (later Sec-Gen, and CJ of SC) that became the Liberty Party candidate.

Compromise of 1850

Agreement that made California a free state, granted money to Texas, gave slavery possibilities to NM and UT territories, and banned slave trade in D.C.

Henry Clay

"The Compromiser" and made his last great feat the Compromise of 1850.

Underground Railroad

Series of abolitionist homes that helped transport slaves until freedom

Harriet Tubman

"Black Moses," freed over 300 slaves in the Underground Railroad.

Fugitive Slave Law

"Bloodhound Bill" and "Man-Stealing Law" that forced all citizens to help capture fugitive slaves, and denied slaves the right to testify and to trial by jury.

William Seward

Abraham Lincoln's Republican rival who opposed compromise and slavery, and believed God's law surpassed the Constitution.

Millard Fillmore

Zachary Taylor's vice president and was best known for using Douglas's method of making each element of the Compromise of 1850 pass, rather than the bill overall.

Stephen A. Douglas

Democratic senator from Illinois and argued for both sides of the Compromise of 1850.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin"

Barnburners

Major composition in the Free Soil Party, being radicals that left the Democratic Party, wanting to end private banks and corporations.

John C. Calhoun

Opposed "Tyranny of the Majority" and the Compromise of 1850, believing the south should be able to cede for violation of property by the federal government.

California

State that opposed slavery because it was settled by abolitionist Northerners.

Hinton Rowan Helper

Wrote "The Impending Crisis of the South," arguing that slavery will ultimately degrade the south, and it is much worse than the factory system in the North.

Stephen A. Douglas

Introduced the "element by element" technique of passing the Compromise of 1850

Bessemer Process

Allowed the mass production of steel.

Charles Goodyear

First to vulcanize rubber.

Isaac Singer

He and Elias Howe are the first to make the mechanized sewing machine.

John Deere

Introduced the mechanical tractor.

Cyrus McCormick

Introduced the steel plow.

Illinois Central

One of the first railroads to connect the North and South, created after Stephen A. Douglas advocated for it after receiving a federal land grant.

Compromise of 1850

Main issue of the Election of 1852.

Election of 1852

Whig party dissolves in this election.

John P. Hale

Free Soil Movement candidate in 1852.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

Declared that any canal was for international use (including Suez in British Egypt).

William Walker

Fails at seizing Baja California, but seizes Nicaragua successfully because he wanted to practice slavery desperately. Neighboring countries kick him out.

Ostend Manifesto

Document written by James Buchanan and Pierre Boule in secrecy, requesting that Spain cede Cuba to the United States.

Matthew Perry

Naval captain that opened relations with Japan after the Convention of Kanagawa.

Richard Henry Dana

Wrote "Two Years Before the Mast," an account of his voyage that sailed around the tip of South America to California in order to settle and find gold.

Jefferson Davis

Secretary of War who encouraged the Gadsden Purchase.

Stephen A. Douglas

...

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854 Act that invalidated the Missouri Compromise by opening the possibility of slavery through Popular Sovereignty instead of keeping the 36'30". The act also split the Nebraska Territory.

Bleeding Kansas

Nickname of the new territories that fought violently over slavery, when abolitionists from the north and plantation owners in the south clashed.

Lecompton Constitution

Official Constitution of Kansas, but misrepresented the majority by allowing slavery.

Topeka Constitution

Unofficial Constitution of Kansas, but represented the majority by prohibiting slavery.

John Brown

Abolitionist who raids pro-slavery farms in the Pottawatomie Creek Massacre.

Border Ruffians

Pro-slavery activists in Missouri that spilled out into Kansas territory to vote pro-slavery in the polls.

New England Emigrant Aid Company

Group that advocated for anti-Slavery families to move to the Kansas Territory by providing transportation, in hopes that Kansas would be a free state that would shift power to the North.

Charles Sumner

Delivered "The Crime Against Kansas" speech, which attacked Pierce and other members of Congress for their handling of the Kansas crisis.

Andrew Butler

Charles Sumner verbally attacked South Carolina congressman __________________, who had suffered from a stroke, by declaring that "slavery was his mistress."

Preston Brooks

Andrew Butler's nephew that beat Charles Sumner with a cane for attacking his uncle and was praised in SC.

Preemption Act

1841 Act that legalized the right of squatters to survey unoccupied land and allowed the squatter to bid on it at $1.25 an acre without auction.

Abel P. Upshur

Tyler's second Secretary of State, ________________, negotiated a treaty to annex Texas in 1844.

James Buchanan

__________________ was selected as the Democratic Party's main candidate in the Election of 1856 because of his lack of involvement in the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

James Buchanan

_________________ was "enemy-less" in regards to the Election of 1856.

Republican Party

The _________________ emerges as the combination of Free Soil Movement, Conscience Whigs, and Northern Democrats as the "party of freedom." They run in the Election of 1856, lose, but still get national attention, prompting their 1860 victory.

Republican Party

_________________ opposed the extension of slavery for economic reasons (that it benefitted white men), but was not abolitionist in nature.

Railroads

"Old Whigs" were most satisfied with the Republican Party's stances on the "pro-business tariff" and also the use of federal funds to help create _______________.

John C. Fremont

"Free soil, free speech, Fremont!" was the political slogan for ____________________, a Mexican-American War hero, running for the Republican Party in the Election of 1856.

Know-Nothing

The American "______________" Party was the most prominent xenophobic party with influence, trying to raise the age of naturalization and restrict immigrants. They run Millard Fillmore in the Election of 1856.

James Buchanan

President _________________ tells Congress that they must admit Kansas as a slave state.

Stephen A. Douglas

____________________ is not reelected to the senate because his views on the Lecompton Constitution resulted in dividing the Democratic Party in half.

George Fitzhugh

____________________ continues to defend the use of slavery in his literature, believing that the Bible permits it and notes the hypocrisy of the treatment of the Northern factory workers.

Kansas

Despite Buchanan's admittance of it to the union, ___________ holds authentic elections that votes itself in as a free state.

Panic of 1857

_________________ was not a significant crisis, but many businesses did collapse and unemployment and hunger significantly struck the North, resulting in an ultimate tariff raise.

Panic of 1857

Because of the ______________, the South felt as if it had a stronger economy than the North, thus leading to their false confidence that they would succeed in the Civil War.

Homestead Act of 1860

____________________ was vetoed by James Buchanan, because it supported the spread of "free" farms in the South and West.

Homesteads

The new idea of ______________ did not please the South because they didn't provide enough land to make slavery profitable.

Stephen A. Douglas

The most ironic political figure in the 1850s, ___________________ tried to get the south on board by supporting Popular Sovereignty but later angered the south by advocating to remove the Lecompton Constitution.

Dred Scott

________________ sues Irene Emerson for freedom; "Once free, always free" is his quote.

Strader v. Graham

___________________ was another Supreme Court case right before the Dred Scott decision that set the precedent of bouncing back cases regarding the slavery question back to the state Supreme Courts.

Roger B. Taney

__________________ judged the Dred Scott decision at a very old age.

D

Out of all the disputes and differences, one thing all Republicans agreed on was [choose one]
a) protective tariff
b) immigrant rights
c) internal improvements with federal money
d) preventing the extension of slavery past the south
e) free homesteads

Fire Eaters

Northern Abolitionists claimed that President Buchanan was dominated by "________________," or Southern Democrats, regarding the Dred Scott decision.

"Lame Duck" President

In regards to dealing with the Secession Crisis, James Buchanan was considered a __________________ at that point, not able to accomplish anything.

Jefferson Davis

_________________ is elected president of the Confederate States of America in 1860.

Alexander H. Stephens

_________________ is elected vice president of the Confederate States of America in 1860.

Crittenden Compromise

John J. Crittenden (KY) proposed the _________________, which essentially reestablished the MO Compromise, but still protected slavery in the South, while allowing Popular Sovereignty for borderline states. This was a failed last-chance attempt to preserve the union.

C

One main reason that James Buchanan could not send the military to put down SC's secession is that:
a) The army was stationed on the Maine border fighting the British
b) There were not enough soldiers because they were settling land in Texas instead
c) Small wars with Native Americans over land occurred
d) The army was still stationed on the Rio Grande
e) The army was not united on political views and refused to attack

plurality

Like many other large elections, Abraham Lincoln won a _____________ in 1860, only getting 39% of the vote

John C. Breckenridge

______________________, who advocated for the annexation of Cuba and the protection of slavery, was nominated to run by Southern Democrats in Election of 1860.

John Bell

______________ ran for the one-time Constitutional Union Party in the Election of 1860, giving out "Union Bells" to gain support.

Charleston Convention

The ______________________ was dissolved because the conflicting views of the different Democrats couldn't agree on one candidate.

John Brown

After Pottowatomie Creek, ___________ raids Harpers Ferry, VA: a guerilla attack on an arsenal and arms the slaves to form a new black republic, but none end up joining.

Robert E. Lee

_______________ and his army is sent to put down the Harpers Ferry raid in 1859.

Stephen A. Douglas

___________________ cannot win the Election of 1860 because he lost the debate to Lincoln and he undermined the Dred Scott decision, therefore enraging the South.

Freeport Doctrine

______________________ said that slavery didn't have to be illegal, but protection and efforts to help it don't have to exist, and the people can vote down slavery.

Chicago

The Republicans convene in the Election of 1860 in ___________, Illinois.

Baltimore

After Charleston, the Democrats convene in _____________, Maryland, where the Northern and Southern Democratic conventions are split after disagreement.

Mary Todd

Abraham Lincoln's spouse was ______________.

William Seward

___________________ was the most popular Republican because of his "Irrepressible Conflict" speech, which undermined slavery, but he couldn't get the nomination because of his dominating opposition in the South.

Republican Party

"Land for the landless" was a term used regarding immigrant rights for the __________________ in the Election of 1860.

B

Regarding to slavery Abraham Lincoln was:
a) abolitionist
b) moderate
c) indifferent about the moral issue
d) against it, but thought that other people could practice it
e) in favor of Popular Sovereignty

D

The Panic of 1857 was caused chiefly by all of the following except:
a) over-speculation in land
b) influx of gold inflating the economy
c) over-speculation in railroads
d) improper lending practices
e) lowering the tariff
f) Europe flooding the booming economy with goods

A

The greatest effect of the Panic of 1857 is best represented by which of the following:
a) South's false confidence in their agricultural-export economy because cotton was not affected
b) Lasting economic turmoil in the north because of Buchanan's oblivion
c) Famine in the North, because they couldn't get food from the opposing South
d) Dramatically higher tariff that angered the South, resulting in the fire at Fort Sumter
e) The increase in demand for free homesteads

G

All of the following EXCEPT which of the following is a cause of the Southern Secession:
a) South is convinced the North is behind John Brown's attacks
b) South's false confidence in their economy makes them feel superior to the Northern manufacturing
c) "Bleeding Kansas"
d) Unfair balance in population
e) increasing tariff after the Panic of 1857
f) Underground Railroad
g) Stephen A. Douglas's constant anti-slavery attitude
h) Uncle Tom's Cabin
i) attempts to overturn the Dred Scott decision
j) transportation routes favoring the North

J

Which of the following was not part of Abraham Lincoln's goals as running for the Republican Party?
a) immigrant rights
b) internal improvements with federal money
c) protective tariff that was "pro-business"
d) no extension of slavery in territories
e) free homesteads in the south
f) abolition of slavery in D.C.
g) land availability near free
h) repeal Fugitive Slave Clause
i) repeal Kansas-Nebraska Act
j) federal protection of slavery in the South

F

The Dred Scott decision did all of the following EXCEPT:
a) opened western territory to slavery possibility
b) gave slavery constitutional approval
c) made a compromise impossible over the slavery question
d) created fear among abolitionists that the ruling would apply to all States
e) Republican Party's attempt to charge the court with "obiter dictum"
f) the increasing opposition of homesteads in the south because they benefitted the North
g) invalidated the Missouri Compromise
h) North's claim that Southern Democratic politicians influenced the decision too much
i) refused African-Americans national citizenship, therefore they cannot sue their owners
j) loss of confidence in the Supreme Court until the 20th century

Slave Power

______________ was the rich, white, Southern, slave-owning group of aristocrats that influenced the federal government and were targeted by James Birney and the Liberty Party.

Butternut Region

___________________ was a stretch of land in Southern Illinois that associated with the South.

King Cotton

_________________ was the nickname of the South's most important export.

House Divided Speech

___________________ was Lincoln's first famous speech; "A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently, half slave and half free."

Fort Sumter

Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard fired upon _____________, a Union fort outside Charleston that held Major Robert Anderson, in April 1861.

Star of the West

__________________ was the ship that was fired upon by Beauregard when Buchanan tries to send aid and supply to Anderson in Fort Sumter.

Fort Moultrie

______________ was too small and indefensible, so Major Anderson moved to Fort Sumter.

Francis W. Pickens

Governor of South Carolina during the Civil War.

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