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How did the wester influence affect Japan?

It became a westernized country that industrialized and became an imperial power

How did the Chinese act towards Western society?

They had disinterest in Europe and wanted to be isolated

What were characteristics of New Imperialism?

Military force, political domination, and social darwinism

Who was the victor in the Fashoda incident?

Britain

Who was involved in the Fashoda incident?

Britain vs. France

Who usually left Europe to settle elsewhere?

Rural small landowners and village craftsmen

What caused gaps in the standard of living and average wealth among nations?

Industrialization

What was the most common/persuasive argument against imperialism?

That European control of nonwhites was immoral and hypocritical

What was the most striking difference between new and old imperialism?

New imperialism's formal political control

Why were Jews least likely to return to their native land?

Because of the violent anti-semitism in Eastern Europe

What two canals were vital to trade?

The Panama and the Suez canal

What was decided at the Berlin conference?

Effective occupation as the basis of territorial claims, pledges to stop the slave trade, and recognition of Leopold's personal rule over the Congo

What was effective occupation?

No single european power would be able to claim the entire continent

What areas in Africa were not controlled by Europeans

Liberia and Ethiopia

What did anti-imperialism leaders in Africa and Asia do?

Used Western ideologies to shape their movements

What were products of British rule in India?

economic development, improved educational system, a powerful unified state

Who attempted to modernize Egypt?

Khedive Ismail

What did Khedive Ismail's plan do?

resulted in bankruptcy and foreign intervention

Who opened Japan to the West?

Commodore Perry of the U.S.A.

What tactic did Perry use?

Gunboat Diplomacy

What determined how Africa would be occupied by the European nations?

Conference of Berlin

Who led the Conference of Berlin?

Bismarck

What treaty ended the Opium war?

Treaty of Nanking

What were three terms of the treaty of Nanking?

Britain would get the island of Hong Kong, China had to pay an indemnity of 100,000, and China had to open up 4 more cities to foreign trade

Who controlled the Congo Region?

Leopold II of Belgium

What is another name for the Qing Dynasty?

The Manchu Dynasty

What happened to the Manchu Dynasty?

It was on the verge of collapse, but came back because of new and effective leadership, and lessened foreign aggression

Who was in control of the Manchu dynasty?

Empress Tzu Hsi

What did the chinese government do to meet foreign challenge?

Launched a hundred days of reform

How did the Manchu Dynasty finally fall?

It was overthrown by people who wanted a republic

Who were the Boxers?

Chinese traditionalists who turned back to ancient practices , political conservatism, and hatred of foreigners

What was the Boxer Rebellion?

When Boxer secret societies rebelled and turned toward ancient practices

Who were the Sun Yat-sen?

Sought to overthrow the dynasty and establish a republic

What was the Sino-Japanese war?

Between the Japanese and the Chinese, when the Japs easily defeated China.

What was the Sino-Japanes war over?

Taiwan, Korea, and Manchuria

What was the result of the Sino-Japanese war?

Japan was given Taiwan, and Korea and Manchuria were independent, which left them open for Japanese penetration

What was the Meiji Restoration?

The government abolished old feudal structure, unified the state, and tried to catch up with the West

Who is the Shogun?

The leader who held real power, the emperor was just a figurehead

Who were samurai?

Warrior nobility

What sparked rebellion in India?

Animal fat used in bullets because cows are sacred to Hindus and pigs were sacred to Muslims

What were causes of rebellion in India?

Growing resentment of foreign rule and nationalism

What was the Great Rebellion?

When India tried to drive out the British

What were two other names for the Great Rebellion?

The Sepoy rebellion and the Indian war for Independence

What was the Indian National Congress?

A group founded by educated Indians

What did the Indian National Congress demand?

Complete Independence and the same equality and self government they grant the white settlers

Who was Ghandi and what did he push for?

A leader of the Indian National Congress, and he pushed for a passive resistance

How did the British treat Indians?

They forced them to do hard labor, discriminated against them, but also grand many beneficial reforms

What did Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" refer to?

The Belgian Congo and how bad it was, along with the conditions. He referred to how Leopold's heart was full of darkness

What was the "white man's burden"?

That it was their duty to spread civilization to backwards people

What was the cause of the Fashoda incident?

Britain and France both wanted the last unclaimed territory of Sudan, they almost went to war over it

Why did France back down in the Fashoda incident?

Because of the Dreyfus Affair

Who was Henry Stanley?

A journalist and adventurer sent by Leopold to the Congo Basin

Who was Cecil Rhodes?

A british man that believed Britain should control all of Africa

Who were the Boers?

Decedents of Dutch colonists who had settled the Cape in the 17th century

What was the Boer war?

When a war broke out between the British and Afrikaners over Cape Town

Who won the Boer war?

The British

What was the Great Trek?

When the Boers moved into central Africa to settle because of the Boer war

What was Bismark's system of alliances meant to do?

To isolate France and restrain A-H and Russia

What are the 4 major causes of WWI

Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism

Why did William II dismiss Bismarck?

He wanted to control things himself, and because of his friendly relations with Russia

What was the Three Emperors League?

Linked the monarchs of A-H, Germany, and Russia in an alliance against radical movements

What happened when William II didn't renew the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty?

France began to court Russia, offering loans, arms, and friendship

Why did the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty form?

Because Russia didn't re-enter the 3 emperors treaty

Who was the "sick man of Europe" and why?

The Ottoman Empire because they were consistently getting weaker

Why did Britain feel threatened by Germany?

Because Germany began to expand its battle fleet, and Britain felt the need to have the biggest one in Europe

What was the Moroccan Crisis?

France controlled Morocco, but Germany wanted it, so they rattled their swords and insisted on and international conference

What was the Algesires Conference?

The conference that decided who get morocco

Who got Morocco and why?

France because everyone thought William II was a bully

Who was in the triple alliance to begin with?

A-H, Germany, and Italy

Who was in the tripe entente to begin with?

France, Russia, and Britain

How did Balkan Nationalism affect WWI?

Many of the Balkan regions wanted autonomy, so they revolted against the Ottomans

Who helped the Balkans and why?

Russia because they felt that they were "Slavic Brothers"

What did A-H get in the Balkans?

Bosnia

What happens to Franz Ferdinand of A-H?

He is assassinated while on a good will tour in Bosnia

Who assassinated Franz Ferdinand?

The "black hand", a secret Serbian society

Who does A-H think killed Franz Ferdinand?

The Serbian Government

What were Serbia's ultimatums from A-H?

They must stop the Black Hand, demanded the dismissal of all Serbian officials and to replace them, and that A-H would go into Serbia and investigate

What ultimatum did Serbia deny?

A-H going into Serbia to investigate

Why did A-H declare war on Serbia?

Because they refused the ultimatum

What does Germany give to A-H and what does it mean?

A "blank check" that basically means Germany will support A-H if they choose to wage war against Serbia

Why is France angry with Germany?

Because Germany tried to isolate France

What does A-H decide to do with Serbia, and what do both their allies do?

They decide to declare war on Serbia, and Russia and Germany both begin to mobilize

What happens between Russia and Germany over the Balkans?

Germany declares war on Russia because they were helping the Serbs

Why does Germany declare war on France?

Because they wouldn't stay out of the war between Germany and Russia because they are allies

Why does Italy drop out of the Triple Alliance?

Because it was only supposed to be a defensive alliance

Why does Italy join the Allied Powers?

Because they were promised land from A-H if they won

What plan does Germany come up with to quickly defeat France?

The Schlieffen Plan

What is involved in the Shlieffen Plan?

Germany enters France through Belgium to quickly defeat France?

Why does the Shlieffen Plan fail?

Because Belgium holds them back

Why does Germany want to defeat France?

So they don't have to fight a two-front war

Why does Britain join WWI?

Because they have a secret alliance with Belgium, and Belgium's neutrality was violated

What battle in Belgium was Germany stopped at?

The Battle of the Marne

Who was in the Central Powers?

Germany, A-H, Ottomans, and Bulgaria

Who were the Allied Powers?

Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, and Romania

What was Wilson's 14 Points?

President Wilson's peace plan for after the war

What was WWI first known as?

The Great War

Why was the Western Front so brutal?

Because they had trench warfare and a stalemate

What was a stalemate?

A tie, where not on country was gaining a profound amount of land over the other

Who was involved in the Balkan Front?

A-H vs. Serbia.

How did the war effect women?

Women had to take the jobs that men left when going to the front

Why did the U.S. enter the war?

Because of the sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman telegram

What was the Zimmerman telegram?

A telegram from Germany to Mexico, proposing an alliance if they tried to enter the U.S. and take land

What was the Easter Rebellion in Ireland?

The Irish tried to revolt and gain their independence, but Britain won

After what battle did the tides turn on Russia?

The battle of Tandemburg

What was the treaty of Brest-Lotvsk?

The treaty in which Russia leaves the war

Who signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?

Russia and Germany

What was the result of the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?

Russia lost 1/4 of land and people to Germany

What is a battle of attrition?

Giving everything you have and letting your enemy bleed to death and force them to give up

What was the battle of Verdun?

A German offensive that gained nothing but killed many

Why was Germany weakened?

Because the Allies had a naval blockade, which led to many shortages

What is the Armistice Day?

When Germany believes Wilson's 14 points will be the basis of the treaty, so they sign it because there is not harsh repercussions

What day was the Armistice signed on?

November 11

How was treaties were written at the Versailles conference? And which one was the most famous?

6, and the treaty of Versialle

What were the major powers known as and who were they?

The Big Four-Britian, France, USA, and Italy

What did France want for Germany?

Revenge and security from Germany

What was the League of Nations? Who proposed it?

A permanent international organization that would protect member states from aggression and future wars/ Woodrow Wilson

Why did the US Senate reject the Treaty?

Because they wanted to be isolationists

Did the League of Nations ever happen?

Yes, but the US never joined it

Why was there revolution in Germany?

Because of military defeat and a desire for peace

What was the German Socialist Party?

Marxian Socialists that ended the war when they gained power

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