A and P II chapter 13 endocrine system

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steroid vs non steroid hormone

A steroid hormone will actually enter the target cell and act directly on the DNA of the cell. A non-steroid hormone will land on a receptor on the cell surface, but not enter the cell. In this case a second messenger will carry out the work, but the hormone stays outside the cell.

sequence of steroid hormone action

1endocrine gland secretes steroid hormone 2 steroid hormone diffuses through target cell membrane and enters cytoplasm or nucleus 3 hormone combines with a receptor molecule in the cytoplasm or nucleus
4steroid hormone receptor complex binds to DNA and promotes transcription of messenger RNA 5 messenger RNA enters the cytoplasm and directs protein synthesis
6 newly synthesized proteins produce hormones specific effects

sequence of actions of nonsteroid hormone using cyclic AMP

1 endocrine gland secretes nonsteroid hormone 2 body fluid carries hormone to its target cell 3 hormone combines with receptor site on membrane of its target cell activating G protein 4 adenylate cyclase molecules are activated in target cells membrane 5 adenylate cyclase circularizes ATP into cyclic AMP 6 cyclic AMP acivates protein kinases 7 protein kinases activate protein substrates in the cell that change metabolic processes 8 cellular changes produce the hormones effects

anterior lobe of pituatary gland

The anterior lobe releases hormones upon receiving releasing or inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus. These hypothalamic hormones tell the anterior lobe whether to release more of a specific hormone or stop production of the hormone.

The anterior lobe releases hormones upon receiving releasing or inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus. These hypothalamic hormones tell the anterior lobe whether to release more of a specific hormone or stop production of the hormone.

posterior lobe of pituitary gland

The posterior lobe contains the ends of nerve cells coming from the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus sends hormones directly to the posterior lobe via these nerves, and then the pituitary gland releases them.

explain how aldosterone regulates blood volume and pressure

The overall effect of aldosterone is to increase reabsorption of ions and water in the kidney -- increasing blood volume and, therefore, increasing blood pressure.

explain the connection between melatonin, lack of light, and seasonal affective disorder SAD

mood variations believed to be related to light and possibly lack of melatonin.may be related to melatonin which is produced in dim light and darkness by the pineal gland, since there are direct connections, via the retinohypothalamic tract and the suprachiasmatic nucleus, between the retina and the pineal gland

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