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Which systems work together to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide

Cardiovascular & Respiratory

The organs of the respiratory system include...

-Nose
-Pharynx
-Larynx
-Trachea
-Bronchi
-Lungs
-Alveoli
-Smaller branches (bronchioles)

*The respiratory conducting passageways are responsible for...

-Humidity air
-Purify air
-Warm incoming air
-Allowing air to reach the lungs

What is the only externally visible part of the respiratory system?

The nose

Parts of the nose include ....

-Nasal septum
-nasal cavity
-nostrils or external nares

What of the nasal mucosa create a gentle current that moves contaminated mucus toward the throat/pharynx?

The cilia

WHat happens to the contaminated mucus if the ciliated cells in the nasal mucosa are functioning properly?

Moves mucus towards the pharynx --> then swallow

What happens to the contaminated mucus if the ciliated cells in the nasal mucosa are not functioning properly (e.g. if it is very cold)

Cilia becomes sluggish=runny nose

The nasal cavity is surrounded by a ring of...?

Paranasal sinuses

What bones house these sinuses? (4)

-frontal sphernoid
-ethmoid-maxillary

*What is the function of the sinuses?

-moisten air
-produce mucus
-lighten the skull
-act as resonance chambers for speech

What are clusters of lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx?

Tonsils

*List the 3 main types of tonsil tissue?

Pharyngeal
palentine
lingual

Adenoids are also called..?

Pharyngeal tonsils

What is another name for the throat?

Pharynx

The windpipe is also known as what?

The Trachea

---- in the trachea propel contaminated mucus toward the ---- to be ----or spat out

Cilia, Pharynx/throat, swallowed

Another name for the voice box

Larynx

What is the "Adam's apple?"

Shield shaped thyroid cartilage

What protects the superior opening of the larynx therefore restricting anything but air to enter the trachea?

Epiclottus

What is the Epiclottus also known as?

the "guardian of the airways"

What is the slit like passageway between the vocal cords?

Glottis

Formed by the division of the trachea and lead to the right and left lungs respectfully

The right and left Primary Bronchi

Large organs that occupy the entire thoracic cavity and house the alveoli

Lungs

The base of the lungs rest on

The diaphragm

*The narrow part of the lungs

Apex

*Is the apex is located on the most superior or inferior region of each lung?

Superior

How many lobes does the right lung have?

3

How many lobes does the left lung have?

2

The most central area of the thoracic cavity

The mediastium

The mediastium houses the

Heart, the greater blood vessels, bronchi, esophagus, etc.

*The surface of each lung is covered with a visceral serosa called the pulmonary or

Visceral pleura

The walls of the thoracic cavity are lined by the

Parietal pleura

THe fluid secreted by the membranes allows the

Lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing.

It also allows the layers to

cling together

What can easily slide past one another, but strongly resist being pulled apart?

Plaurae

Serve as conduits to and from the respiratory zone

The conducting zone

Smallest conducting passageways of this system

Bronchioles

The only site of gas exchange

The respiratory zone

The respiratory zone includes the following structures:

-Respiration
-Bronchioles
-Alveolar ducts
-Alveolar sacs
-Alveoli

Gas exchange occurs by simple

Diffusion

Air moving in and out of the lungs

Pulmonary ventilation

The total amount of exchangeable air

Vital Capacity

*List the 4 distinct events that occur during respiration

-Pulmonary ventilation
-external respiration
-respiratory gas transport
-enternal respiration

Breathng

pulmonary ventilation

Gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli

External respiration

O2 and CO2 carried to/from lungs by the bloodstream

Respiratory gas transport

Gas exchange between capillaries and tissue cells

Enternal respiration

Air flowing in (inhaling) is also known as

Inspiration

Air leaving (exhaling) is also known as

Expiration

The amount of air coming into and out of the lungs with each breath during normal breathing

Tidal Volume (TV)

The amount of air forcibly taken in above TV

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

The amount of air forced out during a deep breath out

Expiratory Reserve Volume

Cannot be voluntarily forced out and remains in the lungs

Residual volume

Extremely slow breathing

Hypoventilation

Extremely fast breathing

Hyperventilation

Oxygen is transported in the blood in 2 ways

On red blood cells as oxyhemoglobin
and a small amount dissolved in the plasma

Most carbon dioxide is transported in plasma as

Bicarbonite ion

The bluish cast that results from inadequate oxygenation (---) of the tissues is called?

(hypoxia) cyanosis

*Normal breathing is called

Eupnia

*Cessation of breathing

Apnea

*The condition that leads to death of many full term newborn infants is called

sids

A group of diseases exemplified by chronic bronchitis and emphysema and is major cause of death & disability in the US

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

*Emphysema causes the following:

-Barrel chest
-decreased lung elasticity
-lung fibrosis
-enlarged alveoli

*Caused by the inhalation of food or other foreign substances into the lungs, thus leading to pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia

*Involves using the uvula to close the oral cavity off from the pharynx in order to clear the upper respiratory passages

Sneezing

*Sudden inspirations resulting from spasms of the diaphragm are

Hiccups

*Formerly believed to be triggered by low oxygen. It is a deep inspiration that ventilates all the alveoli

Yawning

*An act to clear the lower respiratory passageways

Coughing

*Primarily an emotionally induced mechanism that involves the release of air in a number of short breaths, similar to laughing

crying

*An emotionally induced response that produces air movements similar to crying

Laughing

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