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The Affluent Society

During the 1950s, the general economic conditions of the United States included
A. stagnant economic growth.
B. high inflation.
C. low federal government spending.
D. a slowly rising gross national product.
E. low unemployment.

E. low unemployment.

Following World War II, the American economy
A. gave the average American fifty percent more purchasing power in 1960 than in 1945.
B. gave Americans the highest standard of living in 1960, after Switzerland and Sweden.
C. grew nearly ten times faster than the population between 1945 and 1975.
D. produced wealth that was equally distributed throughout the nation's population.
E. gave the average American ten percent more purchasing power than he or she had during the 1920s.

C. grew nearly ten times faster than the population between 1945 and 1975.

During the 1950s, the American Federation of Labor in the United States
A. was intimidated by powerful and wealthy corporations.
B. made significant concessions in benefits to gain higher wages.
C. merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
D. represented nearly one-half of all working Americans.
E. saw its president, David Beck, charged with the misappropriation of union funds.

C. merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations.

Following World War II, American scientists made a critical contribution to the development of penicillin by
A. demonstrating the value of antiseptic solutions to prevent infection.
B. first using the antibacterial agent known as sulfanilamide.
C. finding methods for its mass production and commercial distribution.
D. discovering the antibacterial properties for which the drug was named.
E. discovering penicillin could be used to treat streptococcal blood infections.

C. finding methods for its mass production and commercial distribution.

In 1954, the American scientist Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for the prevention of
A. polio.
B. tuberculosis.
C. influenza.
D. yellow fever.
E. typhoid.

A. polio.

The correct chronological order for developments in electronic technology is
A. vacuum tube, integrated circuit, transistor.
B. transistor, vacuum tube, integrated circuit.
C. vacuum tube, transistor, integrated circuit.
D. integrated circuit, transistor, vacuum tube.
E. transistor, integrated circuit, vacuum tube.

C. vacuum tube, transistor, integrated circuit.

During the 1950s, the United States government's primary motive for the development of rocket and missile
technology was
A. for the exploration of outer space.
B. for the establishment of communication and spy satellites around the earth.
C. the quest to land a man on the moon.
D. for the long-range delivery of weapons.
E. to catch up with German knowledge of rocketry.

D. for the long-range delivery of weapons.

In 1961, the 1st American to be launched into outer space was
A. Yuri Gargarian
B. John Glenn
C. Alan Shepard
D. Edwin Aldrin
E. Neil Armstrong

C. Alan Shepard

Between 1945-1957, the growth of American consumerism was aided by
A. an 800 percent increase in consumer credit.
B. the development of credit cards.
C. low-payment credit plans.
D. revolving charge accounts.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

During the 1950s, the popularity in the United States of suburban living was partly explained by
A. the social importance placed on the family.
B. a desire for racial segregation.
C. a desire for privacy, security, and space for consumer goods.
D. both the social importance placed on the family, and a desire for racial segregation.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

During the 1950s, in the United States, married women who worked outside the home
A. faced social pressures to quit their jobs.
B. increased in number throughout the decade.
C. accounted for one-third of all married women.
D. both increased in number throughout the decade, and accounted for one-third of all married women.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

During the 1950s, television networks
A. refused to show the social upheavals that occurred in America.
B. generally sought to convey an idealized image of America.
C. created conditions that helped to ameliorate social conflict.
D. All these answers are correct.
E. None of these answers is correct.

B. generally sought to convey an idealized image of America.

In his 1956 book on corporate America, The Organization Man, William Whyte, Jr. contended
A. the ideal of rugged individualism had been reestablished in the business community.
B. women and minorities had little chance for advancement in American corporations.
C. corporate wealth was not being fairly shared with its workers.
D. the "inner-directed man" had become "other-directed."
E. a worker's most valuable trait in the corporate work setting was to get along.

E. a worker's most valuable trait in the corporate work setting was to get along.

The popular "beat" novel On the Road (1957) was written by
A. Allen Ginsberg.
B. J. D. Salinger.
C. Jack Kerouac.
D. William Burroughs.
E. Saul Bellow.

C. Jack Kerouac.

Like many early white rock musicians, Elvis Presley drew heavily from black traditions in
A. jazz.
B. rhythm and blues.
C. country western.
D. gospel.
E. folk.

B. rhythm and blues.

Michael Harrington's 1962 book, The Other America, focused on the problems of
A. sexism.
B. racism.
C. poverty.
D. youth alienation.
E. McCarthyism.

C. poverty.

During the 1950s, rural America
A. lost ten percent of its population in 1956.
B. saw its percentage of the national income drop to less than two percent.
C. saw the South increase plantings of cotton as a cash crop.
D. both lost ten percent of its population in 1956, and saw its percentage of the national income drop to less than two
percent.
E. All these answers are correct.

A. lost ten percent of its population in 1956.

All of the following were factors in the 1950s in rising poverty rates in inner cities EXCEPT
A. large numbers of poor people migrating into these areas.
B. increasing automation.
C. a growth of unskilled industrial jobs in these areas.
D. persistent racial discrimination.
E. the movement of factories and mills to new locations.

C. a growth of unskilled industrial jobs in these areas.

In the civil rights movement, the spirit of "massive resistance" is associated with
A. northern blacks.
B. southern blacks.
C. northern whites.
D. progressive liberals.
E. southern whites.

E. southern whites.

The Montgomery bus boycott of 1955-1956
A. failed to end the segregation policies on public city buses.
B. was ruled illegal by the Supreme Court.
C. was sparked by a beating of an African-American woman.
D. marked the emergence of an effective form of racial protest.
E. led to the creation of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).

D. marked the emergence of an effective form of racial protest.

In the 1950s, factors in the rise of the civil rights movement included
A. the events of World War II.
B. the growth of the urban middle class.
C. the rapid spread of television.
D. Cold War politics.
E. All these answers are correct.

E. All these answers are correct.

The most significant and costly initiative of the federal government under President Dwight Eisenhower
involved
A. a nuclear energy program.
B. the space program.
C. a federal highway system.
D. a national healthcare system.
E. a large tax cut.

C. a federal highway system.

The political decline of Senator Joseph McCarthy began when he investigated
A. the United States Senate.
B. the Central Intelligence Agency.
C. Dwight Eisenhower's family.
D. the civil rights movement.
E. the army.

E. the army.

In 1954, under John Foster Dulles's concept of "massive retaliation," the United States would
A. counter any Soviet military move with a larger American force.
B. win the Cold War regardless of the financial cost.
C. use nuclear weapons against communist aggression.
D. use military force before diplomacy in dealing with the Soviet Union.
E. rely primarily on large conventional forces in local conflicts to defeat communism.

C. use nuclear weapons against communist aggression.

Between 1945-1959, the United States policy in the Middle East saw the
A. Eisenhower administration assist in the construction of the Aswan Dam.
B. Truman administration refuse to recognize the state of Israel.
C. President Eisenhower seek to end the rule of Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser during the Suez crisis.
D. CIA engineer a coup that brought the Shah of Iran to power.
E. U.S. refuse to join in a UN resolution denouncing British and French actions during the Suez crisis.

D. CIA engineer a coup that brought the Shah of Iran to power.

The Eisenhower administration responded to Fidel Castro's coming to power in Cuba by
A. ending diplomatic relations.
B. blockading Cuban ports.
C. establishing a military presence in Guantanamo Bay.
D. All these answers are correct.
E. None of these answers is correct.

A. ending diplomatic relations.

In his farewell address to the nation, President Dwight Eisenhower warned against the dangers of
A. global nuclear war.
B. excessive consumer materialism.
C. "brinkmanship" diplomacy.
D. "the military-industrial complex."
E. the growing communist threat.

D. "the military-industrial complex."

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