changes in agriculture, population growth, money supply, natural resources, and supply of markets
What are the 5 conditions that allowed the Industrial Revolution to being in Great Britain?
James Watt improved the steam engine in 1782; could now be used by machinery, fired by coal--so could be located anywhere; full mechanization in textile industry
What was the cause for full mechanization in the textile industry?
Belgium, France, and German states
What were the first industrialized countries in continental Europe? (3)
improved the steam engine in 1782 so it could be used for machinery and fired by coal so it could be located anywhere
women and girls
most of the labor force in textile factories were filled by who? (2)
Industrial Middle-Class and Industrial Working Class
What were the two new social classes formed by the Industrial Revolution?
industrial middle class
factory builders who were invested in industrial capitalism
industrial working class
those that worked in factories--facing horrible conditions
system in which society owns and controls production--usually through government
began in response to poor conditions caused by Industrial revolution; leaders were intellectuals that believed in equality and cooperation for humans; competition should be replaced by cooperation
utopian socialist who believed human goodness would prevail in cooperative society; tried communities in New Lanark Scotland and New Harmony, IN in 1820s; failed
laborers and peasants
During the Industrial revolution, new jobs were created for what two groups?
principle of legitimacy
monarchs from royal families before Napoleon would be restored to keep peace; the leaders hoped this would bring stability and balance power in Europe; to balance out Russia's power, gave land to Austria and Prussia
people should be free from government restraint (within reason)
principle of intervention
right to intervene in revolutions in countries to restore monarchs (except Great britain)
Prince Klemens von Metternich
Austrian Prime Minister who was the leader of the congress
Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia
What are the four great powers that met at Congress of Vienna?
France, Germany, Austria, and Italy
What are the four areas that revolutions took place in 1848?
Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
first president of the Second republic in France
meeting between the four great powers to arrange a final peace settlement and restore old order
What if the purpose of the Congress of Vienna?
Otto von Bismark
Prussia Prime Minister
Otto von Bismark
man associated with realpolitik
"politics of reality"; practical rather than theory of ethics
German Catholics, France, and the German Legislature
What were the three groups which Bismark faced challenges to his authority?
needed slaves for agriculture; state's rights to slavery
What caused South Carolina's succession and formation of Confederacy?
Upper and Lower Canada
What were the two major divins within Canada?
mostly English speaking
mostly French speaking
British moved toward change; 1840- British Parliament formally joined Upper and Lower Canada into United Provinces but not self-governed
What was the result of the Lower and Upper Canada rebellions?
British North America Act
1867 Canada established with constitution; MacDonald first Prime minister and given Parliament; foreign policy left to Great Britain
Compromise of 1867
created dual monarchy of Austria-hungary; each had their own constitution, legislature, government and capital
capital of Austria created by Compromise of 1867
capital of Hungary created by Compromise of 1867
it did not satisfy the varying nationalities
The Compromise of 1867 created a single monarch, common army, foreign policy, and system of finance....but what did it NOT do?
when he became emperor:
-authorization: controlled armed forces, police, and civil service, declared war, introduced legislation; Legislative Corps had no power
-limited civil liberties
-focused on expanding the economy, hoped to distract public from loss of freedom; built RRs, harbors, roads, canals, rebuilt Paris
-opposition grew in response to regime; he responded with concessions
-gave legislature more powers and napoleon re-elected in 1870
state's rights, economic issues, and slavery
What three things caused divisions in national unity in 19th century America?
avoid revolution in 1848
What was Great Britain able to do in 1848 because of parliament passing the bill in 1832 that increased male voters along with economic growth in Great Britain?
-often examined social issues
-focused on the plight of the lower and middle classed in GB during the industrial revolution; Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol
-wanted realistic characters rather than romantic characters
-preferred novels rather than poems
-an intellectual movement in the 18th century; extension of Enlightenment emphasized feelings, emotion, individualism, and imagination
-rebelled against middle-class expectations
associated with germ theory of disease
"survival of the fittest"
means natural selection; associated with Charle's Darwin's organic evolution or the evolution of plants and animals
Great Britain switched from the cottage industry to what?
cotton production, coal and iron industries
What three industries were impacted by the Industrial Revolution?
Due to the creation of factories, workers now reported and worked in shifts; rural workers had been on cycles of active and inactive time periods--factory owners used harsh discipline to "break" workers of this mentality and the children were beaten
How did a new labor system emerge?
led to the ned for more power and increased Great Britain's export
-civil liberties which should be guaranteed in a document (bill of rights)
-separation of church and state
-right to protest
-laws by assembly voted in by voters
-voters should only be property-holding men...mostly from industrial middle-class
-based on tradition and social stability
-believed in obedience to authority and organized religion; crucial for order
Russia invaded the Ottoman Empire so Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia
What was the cause of the Crimean War?
Austria and Russia had been allies, now enemies due to lack of Austria's support in Crimean War; Russia withdrew and Austria now without allies
What was the effect of the Crimean War?
opinions on religion
What is a similarity between conservatism and liberalism?
type of leadership in France before 1830
type of leadership in France after 1830, which was set up by the constitution in 1848
the gaining of Venetia
What is the final event that led to italian unification?