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Final exam

Lend Lease

- Lend Britain weapons and they would be expected to turn them over after the war. But Fire hose scenario - wouldn't want it back. Roosevelt

Neutrality Acts

o 1935-1937
o Arms embargo - prohibited sales of weapons to any fighting nation

Cash Carry

• Would pay in advance with cash for weapons and have to transport (carry) them away themselves

Greer

o Germans attacked US ship Greer - Now US would fire on German ships
• Neutrality acts were officially discarded

o Tripartite or Axis Pact

• Italy, Germany, and Japan September 27, 1940
• Was aimed at the US - would help each other if they were attacked by any country not in the war excluding the USSR
o Britain and US delayed the opening of a second front - wanted Russia to do most of the fighting

o Operation Torch

• The invasion of North Africa
• Was a military success - defeated Rommel

Darlan Affair

• US was seen as negotiating with Nazi supporter
talked to someone in Viche gov't who was a Nazi sympathizer

Operation Barbarossa

o Operation Barbarossa - Germany against the USSR
• Roosevelt extended lend lease to the Soviets to help them

Grand Alliance

• United States, Soviet Union, and Britain
• Uneasy partnership - Ideological differences

Atlantic Charter

o With Wilson
o A joint declaration on the purposes of the war to defeat fascism
o Right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live
• Roosevelt ended isolationism
• Agreed to spheres of influence

Bodyguard of Lies

o "Deceit may be defensible with the nation is in extremis"
o Consequences of Hitler winning would be horrific
o He used executive authority to bypass congress
o Roosevelt told people that the Nazis were planning to attack Latin America - in order to scare people
o Catholics in the US were very anti- communist - so Roosevelt told them the Soviets were allowing religious freedom - was a lie
o When it came to light everything that Stalin had been doing - It contradicted everything Roosevelt was saying

Spheres of Influence Agreement

o Churchill met personally with Stalin - 1944
o Britain would have 90% influence in Greece
o Soviets would have 90% control in Romania and 85% in Bulgaria
o Roosevelt was weary of these agreements

Yalta Conference

o Us wanted:
• Soviets to declare war on Japan
• A United Nations
• Diminished communist influence in Poland
• Nationalist government in China to be recognized as legitimate
o USSR wanted:
• A central voice in Poland - how they had been invaded before
• Favorable boundaries in Europe
• Reparations from Germany
• Concession in East Asia
o Britain wanted:
• A French occupation zone in Germany
• Poland to be free
• Preservation of the British empire
o Results:
• Agreed that Germany would be separated into 4. (British, America, French and Soviet zones) Berlin separated too
• Voting on UN security council was decided to have 5 permanent members - Soviets, US, British, French and China
• Poland would be ruled for now by the communist Lublin poles - but free elections would be allowed later

Potsdam Conference

o Truman heard about the success of the atomic bomb - Stalin was not phased
o Divided Germany - but wanted it to recover economically
o Agreed that they wanted unconditional surrender from Japan

United Nations

o Set up in 1945
o Faith in fundamental rights
o Want to maintain international peace

Harry Hopkins

o Told Stalin we wanted a government in Poland that was decided by the people but that was also friendly to the Soviets
o Was a close advisor for Roosevelt and Truman - an intermediary with Stalin

Truman Doctrine

o There are only 2 choices - divides the world - any effort to change the status quo would be because of Monolithic communism - wanted to be firm with the Soviets
o Sees the importance of supporting Greece and Turkey since Britain cannot - these are places that would open other countries too communism too if they fell

Iran during Truman

o Had been occupied by the allies - after the war the British and Americans left
o Soviet Union troops wouldn't leave - eventually they backed down

Turkey during Truman

o USSR wanted joint control of the Dardanelles
o US gave turkey a special fighter plane
o USSR ended up backing down

Greece during Truman

o Fell into civil war
o Churchill feared communism would take over
o Stalin didn't support the Communists - Tito of Yugoslavia did
o Churchill defeated the EAM

Baruch Plan

o Called to regulate international atomic energy
o Soviets rejected it

Long Telegram - Kennan

o Outlined the nature of the Soviet threat
o Called the Soviets a police regime
o Soviets have an ideological motive to promote communism and destroy capitalism - run by Stalin
o Said the Soviets were suspicious and hostile to the west
o Soviets can afford to wait - not bound to a timetable

X Article

o If Soviets could be contained for a while they would either mellow or be overthrown - people couldn't bear its oppressiveness for too long
o Made no distinction between areas that were more vital to national security
o Failed to make clear that the US also needed to use economic and political means rather than just military means
Kennan

Containment

o US would draw a line around the Soviet sphere and put itself in a position to resist any further Soviet penetration
o Will keep the pressure on the Soviet system

Iron Curtain Speech

o Churchill
o Wakes people up to a danger
o Communists constitute a growing peril not only to the US but to Christian civilization
o Calls for a permanent military alliance between the US and Britain

Walnut Metaphor Truman

o 1st half of the walnut = providing aid and money to Greece and Turkey
o 2nd half = the Marshall plan - helping the rest of Europe

Stalin's Election Day Speech

o 1946
o The war tested the Soviet Union and it was victorious
o Wants an industrial buildup

Marshall Plan

o Gave 20 billion in relief for European nations
- Containment, can have money of you keep us informed, offered to Russia, Moltov said no

Molotov Plan

o Soviets reaction against the Marshall plan - rejects it
o Ensured that the satellite countries would stay oriented with the Soviets

Novikov Telegram

o Said America is characterized by striving for world supremacy
o Mirror image of what we see them doing

Zhadov

o 1947
o Says the USSR has become stronger

Patrick Hurley China Mission

• America's ambassador
• Was pompous and arrogant - didn't respect the Chinese called them Mouse Dung - Mao Zedong and Joe M. Lie - Zhou Enlai
• Failed mission

Marshall Mission

• Temporarily successful - arranged a cease fire
• Finds that the GMD and CCP wont cooperate with each other
• But ultimately failed

Wedemeyer Mission

• Criticized the poor leadership of Chiang Kai-Shek
• Said China needed American aid program

Dean Acheson - Sec of State to Truman

o Wrote the China White Paper
o Said there was little the US could have done to help Chiang because of his corruption

Berlin Airlift

o Soviets blocked access to Berlin
o Western allies flew in supplies to people in West Berlin
o Was a success

Korean War 1950-53

• Japan controlled Korea
• US and Soviets took it back after WWII - partitioned the country along the 38th parallel
• North - Kim Il Sung
• South - Syngman Rhee
• Each wanted to unify the country under their leadership
• Kim asked Stalin for help - he said no
• Next Kim went to Mao - Mao said he would give Chinese troops in return for Soviet technology
• North invaded the south - Truman appealed to the American people through core values - wanted to get rid of evil (communism)
• Truman did not ask congress for a declaration of war - instead he took police action against Korea
• Went to the UN after to legitimize it
• UN gave permission to push the North back to the 38th parallel - this was our initial strategy

General MacArthur

o Pushed them back
o Suggested he could help liberate Korea from communism altogether
o Policy shifted from containment to roll back
o MacArthur was seen as a hero
o He wanted an Asian first strategy - Truman thought more broadly
o Truman refused MacArthur's demands
• Chinese sent tons of troops and pushed back MacArthur's forces back past the 38th parallel
• MacArthur criticized Truman - Truman fired him
• Truman's acceptance of a limited war opened him to harsh criticism from the Republican right wing

Significance of Korean War

o 1) Created fear in US about spread of communism
o 2) Power of president in foreign affair was increased
o 3) US formalized our hostilities with China and vice versa
o 4) Impacted Japan - they profited by giving goods to Korean war effort
o 5) War brought NSC-68 into reality

NSC-68

o Called for creation of a military state
o Expanded our military
o US should plan to counter the Soviet's capabilities not their intentions
o Was approved with the invasion by North Korea

Joseph McCarthy

o Said he had a list of 250 Soviet spies who were working in the state department
o Also attacked Marshall and Acheson - said they were holding the president hostage

NATO 1949

o First peace time alliance
o Purpose was a political and spiritual rallying against the possibility of Soviet aggression
o An attack on one will be an attack on all

Robert Taft

o Called NATO a military alliance
o It could lead to an arms race and ultimately another war
o NATO divides the world into two camps

Sino-Soviet Alliance

o 1950
o "Fraternal friendship and eternal co-operation between China and the USSR"

New Look -Eisenhower

o 1) Massive retaliation
• Rely on nuclear capabilities
• To deter the Soviets from acting
• Have to be willing to go to the brink - brinkmanship
o 2) Wanted to roll back communism
• Eisenhower used covert operations - CIA

John Foster Dulles

o Secretary of State
o Saw the world in black and white
• Stalin dies early in presidency (1953)

First Geneva Conference

o Put neutral governments in Indo-China - split it

Austrian State Treaty

o Puts Austria back together - had been divided into four
o Soviets agreed to it

second Geneva Crisis

o Eisenhower and Khrushchev cant reach agreements on Berlin, Germany or nuclear arms race
• Khrushchev sends in tanks to crush a rebellion in Hungary

Suez Crisis

o Nasser (leader of Egypt) wanted the West out of Arab world
o He takes over the Suez canal which had been largely controlled by the British
o British meet with French and Israelis - come up with a plan to attack
o Go ahead with this plan
o Khrushchev supported Nasser - said he will nuke Paris and London
o Eisenhower gets pissed because he had been angry for Soviets doing this stuff in Hungary and now Britain and France were doing the same thing
o Eisenhower said he would call in every debt they owe and collapse their economy
o They withdraw

Eisenhower Doctrine

o If USSR tries to take over any country in the middle east - the US will respond with troops

Warsaw Pact

o A mutual defense treaty between eight communist states of Eastern Europe
o Response to NATO

U-2 Incident

o Francis Gary Powers is shot down
o Eisenhower said it was a weather plane - lie
o Khrushchev knew it wasn't because they captured Powers

Paris Summit

o Khrushchev leaves the summit because Eisenhower wont apologize for the U-2 incident

Iran during Eisenhower

o Mosaddeq was elected as head of state
o He wanted to nationalize the oil fields in Iran so Iran would get a better deal
o We sent the CIA to overthrow him
o We put the Shah in his place - he gave us a good deal on the oil

Guatemala during Eisenhower

o Arbenz was leader
o 90% of land was owned by United Fruit - an American company
o Guatemalan people were starving
o Arbenz tried to nationalize some of the land - pissed off United Fruit
o US organized a coup
o Armas took over - was a horrible dictator

Flexible Response

o A series of steps to reply to Soviet aggression
o Not jumping right to the nuclear option
Kennedy
• Kennedy increased military spending
• Dean Rusk - Secretary of State

Bay of Pigs

o Wanted to land a guerilla army on this bay
o Hoped the people would rise up against Castro - but it was a disaster because people in Cuba liked him at this point

Vienna Conference

o Khrushchev wants to bully Kennedy
o He tells Kennedy 6 months in Berlin - Kennedy says NO
• Khrushchev builds a wall in Berlin in August 1961

Cuban Missile Crisis

o Khrushchev tries to put missiles in Cuba
o Our U-2 planes notice this
o US set up a quarantine (blockade=act of war) around Cuba
o Letter arrives that says he will take missiles out if US promise not to attack
o A second letter says US also has to remove our missiles from Turkey
o US aggress to the first letter and secretly agrees to take missiles out of Turkey

Partial Test ban Treaty

o 1963
o Bans nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, outer space and under water

Beginning of Vietnam

• Lasted 8 years
• First war the US ever lost
• Was unwise and unwinnable
• Vietnam became a French colony in the 1860s
• Japan kicked France out in WWII
• Then we kicked Japan out after WWII
• France wanted it back

Vietminh

• The Vietminh Dienbienhphu opposed the French taking Vietnam back
o This was lead by Ho Chi Minh
o They won - kicked France out

Geneva Accords 1954

o 1) Temporarily divided the country - 17th parallel
o 2) No new military forces or foreign military forces
o 3) There would be elections in 1956 to reunify the country
o But no one signed the accords
o Ho Chi Minh violated them from the start

North Vietnam Leader

Ho Chi Minh

South Vietnam Leader

Ngo Dinh Diem
o Was catholic in a Buddhist country
o Not a democrat
o Ran an authoritarian regime

National Liberation Front

o Was set up in the South - on orders from the North
o Vietcong was part of them

Vietcong

o Diem called the guerillas this - they were southerners
o Meant Vietnamese communists

Buddhist Crisis

o 1963 Monks protesting the discrimination from Diem's government
• Diem was murdered - JFK was too

SEATO

o Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
o Allied the US, Britain and France with non communist Asian nations

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

o After the ship - Maddox - was supposedly attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin
o Gave the president the power to take any means to repeal armed attacks against the US to prevent further aggression

Johnson when he came to power

• He escalated the war gradually
• State Department White Paper on Vietnam War
o North it totally committed to taking over the South
o US will defend it
• Rolling thunder
o Continuous bombing in the North

McNamara

o Was an advocate of limited war
o Wanted the US to use minimum forces necessary
o Was originally picked by Kennedy - clashed with LBJ
o Advocated Mutually Assured Destruction - would deter war
o Resigned in 1967

General Westmorland

o Used search and destroy strategy
o Would hunt down communists in the jungle and force them to fight

Tet Offensive

o 1968 - Vietcong and North Vietnamese attacked at the same time
o American public saw we weren't really winning the war
o Communists lost but still did a lot of damage

People's Quite Apart Article

o We didn't understand our enemy or our ally
o Lessons learned:
o 1) Intervening nation does not promote independence by imposing on the weaker nation a form of dependence
o 2) Vietnam must be viewed in their political as well as military dimensions and the impact of the two on each other must be understood
o 3) Know you enemy but also your ally
o 4) Americans must be more sensitive to the way their intervention affects others

Nixon Vietnamization

o Meant South Vietnam would take over

General Abrams

o Got rid of large scale operations
o Would find where supplies of the enemies were and would destroy them

Nixon War

• President Thieu
o President of South Vietnam
• Easter Offensive
o Conventional warfare
o South army bent but did not break
• Carried the war into Cambodia to attack North bases
• Nixon wanted an honorable peace
• Christmas Bombing
o Heaviest bombing

Paris Peace Accord 1973

o 1) Cease fire
o 2) All American troops would leave
o North Vietnam troops allowed to stay in south
o Nixon secretly promised that the US would intervene if the North broke their promise - but he couldn't when it happened (1975) because of Watergate

Six Day War

o 1967 - Israel perceived an impending attack from Arab nations so it attacked Syria Jordan and Egypt
o Israel took the Sinai peninsula, Gaza strip and the West Bank and Golan Heights

Brezhnev Doctrine

o Soviets will control all communist parties
o Would use force when necessary to keep their empire intact
o Did this in Czechoslovakia

Kissinger

o Chief foreign policy advisor - became secretary of state
o Both him and Nixon were hard realists - played power politics
• Would threaten and use military force when they believed doing so would advance the nation's security
o Both were secretive and didn't like the state department
• Opened relations with China - agreed to disagree on Taiwan

Linkage

o All aspects of US Soviet relations were to be seen as part of a package
o Would lead to détente

Detente

o A relaxation of US Soviet tensions

SALT I

o ABMs - Anti-ballistic missiles - shoot down nuclear missiles
o Limited each side to two ABM sites
• Framework for SALT II was started

Nixon Doctrine

o US would not send large numbers of ground forces to fight in defense of friendly countries - instead they would provide money weapons, and air power but would expect the countries themselves to bear the brunt of fighting
o Vietnamization was an example of this

Jordon Crisis

o Syria backed by soviets, sent tanks to Jordan to overthrow the pro-American government of Hussein and establish a Palestinian government
o Using the Nixon doctrine - Nixon asked Israel to defend Hussein
o Syria withdrew

Yom Kippur War

o Egypt launched attack on Israel
o US airlifted weapons to Israel - Israel won
• Kissinger was able to pull Egypt lead by Anwar Sadat out of Soviet sphere and into American orbit - Kissinger became friends with Sadat

Helsinki Accords

o States will respect each others sovereignty
o States will refrain from use of threat or force
o Tried to improve relations between the communists and the West

Kissinger and History Article

o Metternich put Austria back together but it couldn't withstand the forces of nationalism - didn't have a broad enough view of history
o Castelreagh - put Britain into European affairs - but didn't have the consent of the people and government
o Bismarck - was tough unified Germany - failed to institutionalize his actions
o Kissinger did all of these

Carter

Carter
• Vietnam syndrome
• Cyrus Vance
o Wanted negotiations and concession with Soviets
o Downplayed the military
• Zbigniev Brzezinski
o Was a hard realist
o Urged firmness with the Soviet Union
• Panama Canal treaties
o A treaty by Roosevelt had guaranteed US control of canal
o Panamanians hated this
o Carter signed a treaty in 1977 to turn it over to Panama
• US brokered a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt
• Carter established full diplomatic relations with China

Taiwan Relations Act

o Terminates government relations but keeps economic ties

SALT II

o Carter agreed to return to original limit of 2,400 missiles
o But when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan - Carter took this away

Carter Doctrine

o US would use any means necessary including military force to defend the Persian gulf against Soviet attacks
o Obliterated Détente
• Carter followed Human rights

Iranian Revolution and Hostage Crisis

o The Shah ran a repressive regime - used police force SAVAK
o Khomeini took over - radical anti-American
o The Shah was allowed into the US for cancer treatment - Khomeini took Americans in embassies hostage

Cambodian Slaughter

o Khmer Rouge
o US wouldn't play a role because of Vietnam
o Carter recognized the Khmer Rouge because of Brzezinski - made a fool

Reagan

• Reagan knew little about foreign policy
• Wanted SDI/Star wars to protect the US - would shoot down missiles from space
• Reagan called the USSR the evil empire
• Haig only lasted a year and a half

George Shultz - Reagan

• George Shultz took over
o One of the most effective secretaries of state in history
o Set high ethical standards
o Was frustrated by the disorder of the Reagan administration - tried to resign
o Wanted to deter Soviet expansionism
o Seek limitations and negotiate and was willing to defend the US' interests

Reagan Doctrine

o Supply military and economic aid to anti-Soviet resistance fighters around the globe
o In Afghanistan and Nicaragua

Philippines

o Pro American but brutal regime
o Shultz thought the US had to help the people there get freedom
o Reagan didn't want to break with the regime there - but eventually did

Grenada

o Cubans were establishing a government here in favor of communism
o US invaded and overthrew the pro Marxist government
• US bombed Libya - Kaddafi

Iran Iraq War

o Iraq attacked Iran
o We helped Iraq but also helped Iran

Sandinistas

were Marxist guerillas trying to take over Nicaragua. The Contras were trying to put down the Sandinistas - but they violated human rights - led to Boland amendment

Boland Agreement

o Said the US couldn't support the Nicaraguan rebels

Iran Contra

o Used arms sales in Iran to help Nicaraguan forces overthrow their government
o Would buy back the Iran hostages
o Was illegal

Beirut Bombing

o US troops in Lebanon to keep peace
o Were attacked by a suicide bomber - many died
o Reagan pulled them out - sent a message to terrorists

START I

o Would reduce nuclear warheads from 7,000 to 5,000
• Both START I and II tried to eliminate nuclear missiles
• Reagan met with Gorbachev and sincerely talked about missile limits
*Key is R = Reduction

BUSH I

• Developed a reputation of being a wimp even though he was tough and cold
• Was cautious - preferred to watch than act

Malta Summit

o Soviets and US signed off on elimination of biological and chemical weapons while lowering conventional arms overall
• Germany was unified
• Bush never formally supported the Baltic states quest for independence but he also didn't want Gorbachev to use force
• Bush and Gorbachev singed START
o Limited both sides to 6,000 nuclear warheads and 1,600 strategic launchers

Prudent Realism

o Said the US should forcibly intervene only when important national interest were at stake, when there were no other effective options and when force was likely to be effective even when limited in scope, time, and costs.

Powell Doctrine

o Had to strike with overwhelming power

Collective Engagement

o Emphasized cooperation with allies to confront nondemocratic powers that might try to dominate critical regions
o Recommended keeping military power up

Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe

o Soviets agreed to cut back on its forces in Europe

Panama

o We invaded and captured Noriega
o He had been a former informer for the CIA - we turned our back on his drug trade
o As cold war ended - he wasn't useful anymore
o We took him out

First Iraq War

o US had supported Saddam Hussein
o Saddam invaded Kuwait and took it over - he needed money after the Iran-Iraq war he had a debt
o Thought he had the consent of the US because he was told it was US policy not to get involved in Arab nations
o Operation Desert Storm - 1991 - took Iraqis out
o But left in elite Hussein people - US encouraged Kurd and Shiites to rise up against them - but when they did the US didn't help - they were slaughtered
• Bush did not intervene when there were huge human rights violations in Yugoslavia and Bosnia

Clinton

• Lacked an overall global strategy
• Put down the genocide in the Balkans
• Failed to intervene in Rwanda - Hutus killing tutsis - because of Somalia

• Bin Laden hated that we had troops in the holy land of Saudi Arabia
• Bin Laden helped pay for several terrorist camps
• Clinton attacked one of these camps but Osama was not there

Oslo Accords

o A brokered peace between PLO and Israel
o Didn't work - but a step

Wye Agreement

o Got Arafat (PLO) and Netanyahu (Israel) to meet together - promised to crack down on terrorism

North American Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

o Made the continent of North America a gigantic free trade zone
• Bin Laden hated that we had troops in the holy land of Saudi Arabia
• Bin Laden helped pay for several terrorist camps
• Clinton attacked one of these camps but Osama was not there

Vance-Owens Plan

o Called for a ceasefire and the division of Bosnia into several semiautonomous provinces

Kosovo

o Serbs were attacking those in Kosovo Albanians
o Milosevic controlled Serbs
o Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) fought for independence against the Serbs
o Clinton took action - bombing campaign instead of ground troops
o Serbia surrendered

Failure of Our Success

o Article about Kennan
o Said we should have negotiated with the USSR
o Says there are limits to what any sovereign country can do to help another

• Article on Shevardnadze

o He helped bring an end to the cold war
o Saw the mistakes of the Soviet Union and wanted to change them
o Thought the huge military buildup had hurt the average citizen
o In his new thinking he promoted:
• 1) The need for Soviet Union to overcome is isolationism and work with the international community
• 2) National security would require economic strength at home
• 3) Wanted to open up discussion on what Soviet foreign policy should be

BUSH II

• Supreme court effectively stole the election from Gore by a 5-4 margin
• Bush gained popularity after 9/11
• Fiscally irresponsible and poorly planned war
• When Bush came into office he planned to pursue a less activist policy than Clinton
• Al-Qaeda - Arabic for the base
• Jihad - holy war
• Taliban - took over Afghanistan
• Hezbollah - fundamentalist Shiite Iranian backed militia

Secular Fascists

o Lead by Saddam Hussein
o Professed an ideology but really wanted power and domination
o Since the overthrow of Hussein this group has been subdued

Radical Shiites

o Led by government of Iran
o Glorify martyrism
o Want to unify the world under them

Radical Sunnis

o Al-Qaeda
o Led by Osama Bin Laden's Al-Qaeda network
o Glorify Martyrism
o Want to unify the world under them

Afghanistan

o US overthrew Al-Qaeda in 2001

New National Security of US

o Measured Preemption
o Cannot let enemies strike first
o Emphasized building democracy

Second Iraq War

o Saddam had pursued nuclear and chemical weapons
o Was a self proclaimed enemy of the US
o Military campaign went as planned
o Weapons of mass destruction were not found
o Iraqis didn't step forward to create a new government

Bush Negatives

o Planning for aftermath of overthrow of Saddam was inept
o Bush oversold his democracy building project
o Huge tax cuts produced enormous federal budget deficits
o His style produced an anti-American back lash that diminished our world standing
o Failed to halt Iranian nuclear problem
o Recklessly manipulated the national security partisanship - didn't cultivate bipartisan consensus

Bush Positives

o US has weakened Al-Qaeda
o No US terrorist attack since 2001
o Bush recognized the harsh reality of Islamic Extremism and came up with a strategy to counter it

No Choice Article

o Said we were attacked because the terrorists don't like our foreign policy
o An attack against America's global power not America
o We don't have any choice - we have to go to war
o Written right after 9/11
o Says we need to provide the military with the forces and funds it needs to fight terror

After Containment-The Legacy of Kennan

o When Kennan came up with his strategy he took small parts from other past strategies
o Used the theory of transferability
o Cold war strategy was a state based strategy
o We could use selective parts of containment today:
• 1) Intellectual geography - let there be a middle ground, not just black and white
• 2) Enemies should be encouraged to defeat themselves - interests of the terrorists and of the states that support them clash
• 3) Rely more on the study of history - understand the enemy
• 4) Coherence and accountability - strategies need to stay the same through presidencies
• 5) Containment must not destroy what it is attempting to defend

Obama

• Ordered the killing of Osama on May 1
• Bolstered US position with China
• Said he will not permit Iran to develop a nuclear weapon
• Obama announced South China sea will be important in foreign policy

After Ten Years Article

o Bush used the word freedom when talking about action against terrorists
• Implied there was ideological matters with this attack
o By doing this Bush was able to legitimize the war in Iraq
o Both a hatred of freedom and a hatred of American Foreign policy help fuel terrorists
o Me must support democratic Muslim nations

Deep Danger: South China Sea Article

o China laying claims to islands in the south China Sea
o US wants multilateral negotiations and the waters open to everyone - this helped give some confidence to ASEAN nations
o ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) countries might not stick up to china because:
• 1) These countries are fearful of choosing between the US and China
• 2) China has a lot of influence over them
• 3) None of these countries has the means to confront China militarily
• 4) ASEAN is not a unified purposeful actor
o China is building a navy

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