Balkan Crises, 1912 and 1913
The spark that started WW1 after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the Archduke of Austria: Austria tries to retaliate against Serbs and Russia comes to their aid as the Slavic "Big Brother". By the early 20th century, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire of Turkey. But large parts of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule. In 1912, these countries formed the Balkan League. The First Balkan War broke out when the League attacked Turkey on 8 October 1912 and was ended seven months later by the Treaty of London. After five centuries, Turkey lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans.
The Second Balkan War broke out on 16 June 1913. Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, made in secret by its former allies, Serbia and Greece, and attacked them. The Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked into Bulgaria, while Romania and Turkey also attacked Bulgaria and gained (or regained) territory. In the resulting Treaty of Bucharest, Bulgaria lost most of the territories it had gained in the First Balkan War.
a liberal political party in the Russian Empire. Party members were called Kadets, from the abbreviation K-D of the party name Konstantin Kavelin's and Boris Chicherin's writings formed the theoretical basis of the party's platform. Historian Pavel Miliukov was the party's leader throughout its existence. The Kadets were mainly supported by professionals, - university professors and lawyers were particularly prominent within the party - members of the zemstvo (a form of local government), and some industrialists. Edit
Germans had taken over the River and pushed back Britain and France in a series of attacks; Battle near paris that ended Germany's hope of swift victory, the first battle of WWI happened where the French and British stopped the Germans and the Schlieffen Plan. Second battle was turnign point Edit
The seizure of power by force by the Bolsheviks from the Provisional Government (that had replaced Tsar Nicholas II after the February Revolution) in November of 1917. After the forceful seizure of power, Lenin set himself up as the first head of a Marxist state with aspirations to change the country, making several decrees in his effort use socialist ideas (Confiscation of large estates and businesses & establishment of political monopoly- no rival political parties). Edit
Russia's legislative Duma formed it in order to restore order. It was challenged by the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; a temporary government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I. Edit
House of Romanov
Second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. From 1761 to 1917, Russia was ruled by a line of the House of Oldenburg descended from the marriage of a Romanov grand duchess to the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. This line was officially also called Romanov. Most prominent and famous are the Tsars Alexander I and Alexander II. Edit
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons. Edit
This telegram, written by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, is a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the United States. The obvious threats to the United States contained in the telegram inflamed American public opinion against Germany and helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917. Edit