strive inwardly to be competent and self-determining in their quest to master tasks
motivation comes from other people through positive and negative reinforcements
neither intrinsic or extrinsic, simply given up. lack of competence and control.
types of intrinsic motivation
knowledge, accomplishment, stimulation
pleasure and satisfaction of learning, exploring, understanding
pleasure and satisfaction of creating/ mastering
to experience pleasant feelings of fun, excitement
types of extrinsic motivation
integrated regulation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation
personally important because of a valued outcome rather than interest in activity
completely controlled by external sources.
motivated by internal products, but regulated by external contingencies (guilt)
behavior highly valued, accepted judged, thus done willingly even if activity is not pleasant
cognitive evaluation theory
how rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases
a blend of physiological and psychological activity in a person, and it refers to the intensity dimensions of motivation at a particular moment.
the result of a perceived imbalance between demands and responses capabilities where failure to meet the demands has important impications
3rd stage of the stress process is the individual's physical and psychological response to a perception of the situation
situational sources of stress
event importance and event uncertainty
personal sources of stress
trait anxiety and lack of self-esteem
negative emotional state typified by feelings of nervousness, worry, and apprehension (cognitive competent) often accompanied by perceived physical activation (somatic component)
"right now" anxiety. subjective, consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension accompanied by activation of the ANS
disposition to perceive a wide range of objectively non-dangerous situations as threatening. respond to these situations with levels of state anxiety disproportionate in intensity to the magnitude of the danger
relationship b/w state/trait anxiety
high trait anxious individuals experience more state anxiety in highly competitive or evaluative situations
linear relationship b/w arousal & performance. as arousal levels increase, the likelihood of the dominant response increases
implications for learning for the drive theory
have a low level of arousal
relationship b/w arousal and performance is curvilinear, taking the shape of an inverted-U
arousal performance relationship may differ by task difficulty or complexity and skill level
2 principles in zones of optimal functioning
1. the optimal level of arousal (state anxiety) does not always occur at the midpoint of the inverted-U. 2. optimal arousal is not a single point, but a bandwith
multidimensional anxiety theory-cognitive
propose a negative linear relationship with cognitive anxiety
multidimensional anxiety theory- somatic
a curvilinear relationship with with somatic anxiety
combines cognitive anxiety and arousal with performance
according to the catastrophe theory, under low cognitive anxiety
the inverted-U holds
according to the catastrophe theory, under high cognitive anxiety
after threshold, get dramatic drops in performance
according to the reversal theory, how arousal affects performance
depends on how an individual interprets their own arousal level
arousal can be (reversal theory)
pleasant & exciting OR unpleasant & anxious
emotions associated with state and arousal levels
relaxation, boredom, excitement, and anxiety
cue-utilization theory: basic principles
1. as arousal increases, attention narrows, resulting in a loss of sensitivity to environmental cues. 2. under conditions of low arousal, we have a broad range, irrelevant cues are accepted uncritically. 3. under conditions of increasing arousal, relevant cues are selectively attended to and performance increases. 4. too much arousal narrows focus too much- result is "tunnel vision." some task relevant cues are ignored and performance decreases.
the ability to maintain focus upon relevant environmental cues
2 components of concentration/attention
selectivity and alertness
limiting attention to appropriate cues.
ability to maintain concentration/ attention
dimensions of attention
width: broad to narrow
direction: external to internal
behavior that occurs when performance gets progressively worse and athlete appears unable to control their own performance.
ways to enhance concentration
simulation training, establish routines, practice relaxation techniques , overlearn skills
requires anxiety awareness. "relive" your best and worst performance. paying attention to these states during competition improves arousal awareness. key to reaching optimal levels.
breathing and centering
sequence of relieving cognitive worry and physial tension by systematic breathing and focusing on relevant thoughts
how is breathing and centering done
breathe in thru the nose, relax arms and shoulders, push stomach out. exhale and change thoughts to focus on the task.
form of meditation involving controlled breathing that results in feelings of awareness, focused attention, relaxation and a sense of effortlessness. goal is achieving a flow state.
4 components for relaxation response
quiet environment, comfortable position, mental device, passive attitude
goal is to reduce innapropriate tension
strategies for psyching up
pep talks, self-talks, goal setting, crowd effects, pre-competition warm-ups
2 or more persons interacting with one another
components of group productivity formula
Potential productivity - losses due to faulty processes= actual productivity
what the group actually does ( how they perform)
groups' best possible performance given its resources and task demands
coordination problems. decreases in individual motivation.
poor timing. poor strategy.
decreases in individual motivation
as group size increases, pressure to perform is dispersed therefore each individual feels less pressured to perform.
general decrease in group performance due to motivational losses
studied ppl pulling on a rope. assessed force when pulling alone and then when in groups. increase in group size led to reductions in pulling force. appears to be both coordination and motivational.
how do we explain social loafing?
assumption of others reduced efforts. save best performance for individual efforts. diffusion of responsibility.
conditions that enhance loafing
individual output cannot be evaluated. task is perceived as meaningless. low personal involvement in task. comparison against group standards is impossible. group are strangers.
how to reduce social loafing
increasing identifiability (tape performance, grade everyone). understand individual contributions to the group. form subgroups.