Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Civil rights

rights that 1. enable individuals to engage in activities central to citizenship or legal immigrant status, such as voting or petitioning the government, or 2. guarantee freedom from oppressive actions by others that seek to deny an individual's full status as an equal member of society.

Civil liberties

freedoms protected from interference by the government or by others, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion

Bill of rights

the first 10 amendments to the constitution, which enumerate a set of liberties not to be violated by the government an a set of rights to be protected by the government

Jim crow laws

laws passed after the civil war to establish a system of segregation of public facilities and private establishments that made african americans second-class citizens

Civil rights movement

a social movement of the 1950s and 1960s focused primarily on the situation of african americans, but also promoting the goals that all people be treated as equals under the law that discrimination based on race, religion, ethnicity, gender, and place of origin be eliminated

Due process

the right to legal protections against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property

Equal protection

the principle that laws passed and enforced by the states must apply fairly to all individuals

Incorporation

the process by which rights and liberties established by the bill of rights are applied to state and local governments through the 14th amendment

Strict scrutiny

the highest-level standard used by the Supreme court to determine whether a law is compatible with the constitution. A law subject to this standard is considered unconstitutional unless it advances a "compelling state interest" and represents the least intrusive means

Rational basis test

the lowest-level standard used by the supreme court to determine whether a law is compatible with the constitution. A law subject to this standard is assumed to be constitutional as long as its goals are clearly linked to its means

Intermediate scrutiny

an intermediate standard used by the supreme court to determine whether a law is compatible with the constitution. A law subject to this standard is considered constitutional if it advances "an important government objective" and is "substantially related" to the objective

Affirmative action

efforts to redress previous discrimination against women and minorities through active measures to promote their employment and educational opportunities

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set