anthro test #2

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Eating Christmas in Kalahari

- Richard Borshay Lee
- !Kung Bushmen
-how the !kung perceive generosity
- Christmas story : "praise the birth of white-mans God chief"
- Tswana -Herero custom - slaughter ox
- anthropologist wants to give them a big fat ox to eat for Christmas
-Learns about arrogance : "there are no totally generous acts" , "we refuse one who boasts for someday pride will make him kill somebody"
- "cool his heart and make him gentle"
- to kill an animal and share meat is what they do every day

Shakespeare in the Bush

-Laura Bohannan
-tries to tell the story of Hamlet to the Tiv elders to find that hamlet does not have one, universal interpretation as she thought it did
-naive realist- tend to believe our culture mirrors a reality shared by everyone
- the bushmen ascribe different meaning to the events that happen: told that genealogical details made all the difference, mother motif, fratricide, don't believe in survival after death as as ghost.. must be witchcraft or an omen or zombie, hard to talk about devil-inspired visions, only witches can make people drown
-" it is clear the elders of your country never told you what the story really means!" ... now you see we are more than just bushmen we are wise (Tiv elders) ..

Death Without Weeping

- Nancy Scheper-Hughes
-shantytown : The Alto do Cruzeiro
- mothers try not to get attached to their babies because there is such a high infant mortality rate/ women were indifferent towards the death of the babies/death is anticipate
- women just assumed the babies were ill-fated/ making it hard to inspire them to "rescue" their babies that they already regarded as "angels"
-stoicism, equanimity
- some babies were viewed as "survivors" and were nurtured, the others were "doomed" and left to die = mortal selective neglect aka passive infanticide
- notion that it makes no sense to fight with death/ just cooperate with God's plan
-drought in 1965 - "die off"
- how to mother: 1. when to let go of a child that shows it "wants" to die"/ is weak and thin 2. when its safe to let yourself love a child
- "child sickness / child attack" - infant death that was fated/ inevitable
- can be seen as a survival strategy .. such poor areas/ pathogens/ etc
- no documentation/ records casual/ free coffin/
-routinization contributed by doctors, court, church, mothers, etc: indifference of women is a reflection of church and state
- since 1990- democratization and national health service..clean water pumps = change in attitude

How Sushi Went Global

- Theodore Bestor
- post WWII - world trade/global economic and cultural independence exploded= globalization -- Japanese loved blue fin tuna and depended on fishing in NA/Europe, tuna glut just as it became popular so increase in fishing to re-satisfy
- sushi started gaining popularity - turned into a sign of class and educational standing in 70s
- sushi went from exotic/unpalatable -- popular, cool, cosmopolitan
- almadraba - fishing net left for 6 wks to intercept tuna in Mediterranean
-japanese demand for tuna created a gold rush mentality
- global flow of technique and capital
- just b/c sushi is available doesn't mean japan has lost its cultural property - globalization doesn't homogenize cultural difference ... it grows the franchise
-sushi has a "prestige factor" in the states but the cultural id assoc with Japanese still exists
- tuna will go through tokya - here, determine quality
- a fisher in NA can be affected by market prices in tokyo or a fish farm disaster in the atlantic
-national symbolism? red tuna on white rice ? JAPAN!
- tuna is the samurai fish ?! - mystification of a distant market
- Tokyos pantry: Tsukiji
- Stateless fish: think IACC regs. protect blue fin at america's expense while other countries profit

The Case of the Gypsy Offender

-Anne Sutherland
-A Gypsy man is arrested for using the Social Security number of a relative for a car loan application. Using the identities of family members is a common Gypsy practice designed to hide their identities.
-He had no intention to defraud anyone
-He got 6 months jail time

Mixed Blood

-Jefferson M. Fish
-American's think race is a biologically defined group/ not by looks but by heritage.. in Brazil based on how they look (ex. one couple may have children of different "tipos")
-mistake to think race is a biological entity
- race is a myth - our classification is fantasy
- humans are a species - randomly evolved (diff environments, survival, mutations, etc) = genetic drift
- skin color is subject to rapid evolutionary change / eyelid skin fold / body shape
- people have been living in Africa the longest - lots of variation - but we see them all as one "race"
- folk taxonomies - classifying based on culture-specific dimensions of meaning , ex. avocado
- "hypo descent" = "blood"
- race is a social construct/classification
- brazil : Race = tipo - classify based on physical features
-american system -based on parents/ not physical features like in brazil
- haiti based on ancestry and physical
-appearance. ex. "un blanc noir"
- more immigration - greater diversity
-"other"

Village Walks: Tourism and Globalization Among the Tharu of Nepal

-Arjun Guneratne and Kate Bjork
- what's it liked to be viewed by a tourist/ how does the guides depiction affect the tharu people during the village walk?
-Tharu village, Pipariya, Nepal, India
- have created an image of the Tharu as primitive and backwards to attract tourists / ride in on an ox cart to convey a traditional past
-tour guides adhere to the tourist image of the tharu and reflect cultural stereotypes consistent with status in nepal's social hierarchy.. guides are usually from higher ranking societies
-guides don't ask the tharu to explain, they do it
- not all intrusive, ethnocentric , uninformed .. but mostly
- pahuna - means guest - tharu have a ethic of hospitality
- children have learned to beg/ don't mind the tips / but distressed by how they are portrayed
-exploit the "primitiveness" but tourism brings money to locals ..
-anthropologists don't depend on others to mediate relations w people they study / build an enduring relationship
- the culture becomes reconfigured to entertain the tourists ..
-today - very modern

The Road to Refugee Resettlement

- Dianna Shandy
-hard to find defined cultural groups now , people are on the move
-the Neur, from Sudan - fleeing civil war gain relocation in the US and meet demands of life in the US - assisted by the UN and social service agencies and Nuers determination to better themselves
-subject of Sir Edward E Evans-Pritchard
- movie "The Nuer" -Robert Gardner
-how will pastoralists adapt to life in the city
-immigrants - doesnt matter why or from where.. we just call them immigrants .. -AND refugees now (have a formal status)..not just IDP.. share a well founded fear of persecution
-bureaucracies control who is classified as a refugee
-Thok Ding - person, gaar ceremony (free man)
-not good to create elaborate stories to make yourself eligible for resettlement
-must have a reason, pass medical screening, and promise to pay back their airfare to us
-volags - voluntary agencies that help them acclimate
- men struggle with "unreasonable levels of freedom" afforded to the women in us society
-refugee groups are purposely scattered - think it helps them to adapt but seldom stay put . nomads. move where they have friends/jobs
-importance of keeping in touch
-transnationalism
-2005 - war ended after 22 years
-2011 south sudan its own nation

Medical Anthropology: Leprosy on the Ganges

-Ron Barrett
-Banaras (Varanasi) - destination for indigent and socially discredited peoples
-the course of a biological disease is affected by its stigma , ex. Leprosy (hansens' disease)
-cast out in India for having leprosy
-stigmatization affects the course of the disease and treatment
-lepers are forced to beg
- holistic approach of medical anthro is necessary (clinical and social aspects)
-distinction between disease (clinical) and illness (personal experience)
- cure - 3 antibiotics - MDT - not contagious, curable
- difficult to feel - so can obtain pressure ulcers .. etc
-prejudice can become a self-fulfilling prophecy
-Sita- denial and concealment -- delays treatment
-Ram Dev- ulcers, self mutilation (an amplification of alientation), neuropathies, dispell the bad blood .. bloodletting , heroin abuse (weird bc its a disease without sensation of pan.. metaphor for all their loss), couldnt do any worse for their social status but maybe do better for it by being what people expected them to be
-"learn to become lepers"
-economic desperation -- disease exposure
-cost of social exposure outweighs benefits of testing and treatement

Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?

- Lila Abu-Lughod
- woman's public dress makes div. Btw men and women apparent in Muslim world
- in west: our rationale for war should be liberation of women.. Lila says no
- western feminists see this as exploitation by man but Muslim woman see it as symbol of modesty
- Taliban- Burqa symbolized religious piety AND modesty
- cultural framing prevented exploration of serious cultural roots.. counterproductive
-Laura Bush address on Nov 17- mixed things (ex. Taliban and terrorists, war against terrorism and women's liberation)
- should be wary when neat cultural icons are plastered over messier/historical narratives
- no Taliban does not mean no Burqa - not related. Burqa has deeper meaning (cultural for Pashtun women)
-portable seclusion / mobile homes/ home is associated with the sanctity of women
-people dress appropriately for their social communities/ - have socially shared standards/religious standards/moral ideals
-different forms of veiling have different meanings in diff communities
- the west needs to stop concerning itself with the veil and focus on real feminist issues
-cultural relativism - how to deal with "others" -- acceptance of the possibility of difference .. we shouldn't be focused with "saving people" / they want different things
- should not be cultural relativists who just accept them as different.. can we accept that they may want different things for themselves for justice? diff paths for social change ..
- "saving" implies we are superior
- cultural relativism vs. respecting cultural differences

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