Immunopharmacology

18 terms by radarling 

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prednisone

Use in rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, brain swelling, etc. Inhibits inflammatory response, suppresses T cell proliferation and activation, suppress Ab production. Activates transcription of glucocoricoid response elements.

cyclosporine

Inhibits the calcineurin phosphatase and T cell activation. Blocks IL-2 production. Used to prevent graft vs host syndrome. Some nephro and hepatotoxicity.

tacrolimus

Like cyclosporine it blocks IL-s production and T cell activation. It is 100X more potent than cyclosporine; therefore, the toxicity effects are similar, but more severe.

sirolimus

Immune sppressing drug that does not block IL-2 production. This drug may produce a tolerance (a good thing with immunodrugs). Also inhibits T cell activation.

cimetidine

Drug for indigestion and acid reflux, also happens to inhibit CYP450.

erythromycin

Antibiotic drug that inhibits the functioning of CYP450.

azathioprine

Used in combination with corticosteroids for immunosuppression. Converted to a competative inhibitor if inosinic acid (precursor to A and G); therefore, it blocks the cell cycle in the S phase. Coadministration of allopurinol can increase toxicity effects (in the GI, bone marrow, and liver).

mycophenolate mofetil

Inhibits monophosphate dehydrogenase; therefore blocks synthesis of purines as well as B and T lymphocytes. Used with cyclosporine and corticosteroids to prevent rejection of transplant. Coadministration with antacids including MG and Al decreases absorption.

FTY720

Sphingosine-phosphate receptor agonist. Sequesters lymphocytes in lymph nodes and peyer's patches, thus protecting a graft from T-cell attack. Used with cyclosporine and prednisone to inhibit rejection. Can increase the heart rate of a patient with 1st dose. Must be careful with patients with heart disease.

interferon

Boost immune functioning for use in treating conditions like Kaposi sarcoma or hairy cell leukemia. Lots of potential effects from toxicity.

IL-2

Induces a T-cell response. Good for use on malignancies like renal cell cancer. Lots of potential toxicity effects.

daclizumab

Mouse/human clonal Ab that blocks the IL-2 receptor on T lymphocytes; thus suppressing the immune response. Often given with cyclosporine and corticosteroid. No real toxicity effects!

muromonab CD3

Mouse monoclonal Ab. Binds to CD3 on T lymphocytes... due to the proximity of CD3 to the TCR complex, this is blocked as well. The T cell is unable to identify any antigens and cannot then attack the graft. Toxicity leads to cytokine release syndrome which can include life threatening pulmonary edema.

infliximab

Ab binds to TNFa and prevents the cytokine from binding its receptor. Immunosuppressant. May also be used in Crohn's Disease.

etanercept

Like infliximab, this drug binds to TNFa and prevents it from binding to its receptor and mediating an immune response.

bacillus calmette-guerin

A viable strain of mycobacterium that stimulates the actions of NK cells and T cells. Useful for bladder cancers. Toxicity can lead to severe hypersensitivity (because it is a natural bacteria).

filgastim

Expands the population of neutrophil granulocyte precursors. Can cause bone pain in back, sternum, and pelvis from toxicity. AKA granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)

epoetin alfa

Synthetic erythropoetin that induces bone marrow to create more RBCs. Good treatment for anemia. Despite its short half-life, it stays in the bone marrow for a long time and, thus only needs to be administered 3x per week.

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