AP US History: 1933-1945 (Chapter 35 + 36)

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Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War America in World War II From American Pageant version 12

Cordell Hull

Secretary of State under President Franklin D. Roosevelt and founder of the United Nation., believed in reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers, as well as a low tariff; led to passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934; also believed in Good Neighborism.

Stalin

Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Mussolini

founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.

Hitler

leader and founder of Nazi's, organize his supporters into fighting squads, had an obsession with extreme nationalism, racism and antisemitism, promised to end reparations, create jobs and defy the Versailles treaty, German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945); had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust

Franco

Spanish general who led the fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War and became dictator of Spain in 1939.

Winston Churchill

1874 to 1965; great wartime leader; rallied the British with his speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination; known for his "iron curtain" speech; led the British during World War II; agreed Hitler should be conquered; was thrown out by his own people.

Lindbergh

United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)

Wendell Willkie

He led the opposition of utilities companies to competition from the federally funded Tennessee Valley Authority. His criticism of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt led to his dark-horse victory at the 1940 Republican Party presidential convention. After a vigorous campaign, he won only 10 states but received more than 22 million popular votes, the largest number received by a Republican to that time.

reciprocity

A mutual reduction of duties charged on goods exchanged between Canada and the US.

totalitarianism

a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

isolationism

a policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations

London Economic Conference

Consisting of 66 nations meeting in the summer of 1933, it revealed how thoroughly Roosevelt's early foreign policy was subordinated. The delegates hoped to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression. Because of a message that Roosevelt sent to the conference that scolded the conference, the delegates adjourned empty-handed. The collapse of the London Conference strengthened the global trend toward extreme nationalism. (p. 800-801)

Good Neighbor policy

FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region; a reversal of Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick policy

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act

(1934) The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery.Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.

Nazi party

German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, this party became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule.

Rome-Berlin axis

1936; close cooperation between Italy and Germany, and soon Japan joined; resulted from Hitler; who had supported Ethiopia and Italy, he overcame Mussolini's lingering doubts about the Nazis.

Nye committee

1934. Senate committee led by South Dakota Senator Gerald Nye to investigate why America became involved in WWI. Theory that big business had conspired to have America enter WWI so that they could make money selling war materials. Called bankers and arms producers "merchants of death."

Neutrality Acts

4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents, passed in 1935, 1936, and 1937, and stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.

Spanish Civil War

civil war in Spain in which General Franco succeeded in overthrowing the republican government; during the war Spain became a battleground for fascists and socialists from all countries; 1936-1939

China Incident

incident in which Japan invaded China, and America stood by the side and watched it happen remaining neutral.

"Quarantine" speech

The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan's invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.

nonaggression pact

1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland

cash and carry

policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full (in cash) and transported them.

phony war

was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground

Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies

1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.

America First Committee

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

lend-lease

Act in March 1941, which allowed the US to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense", ESSENTIALLY, it's purpose was to get around the neutrality act by allowing the US to "lend" supplies to other countries as long as they paid us back

Atlantic Charter

1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war

Henry Kaiser

An American industrialist who won a government contract to build "Liberty Ships", which were cargo ships used in WWII. He made records when he churned out 1 ship every 14 days and became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established the Kaiser Shipyard after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel.

A. Philip Randolph

America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.

Douglas MacArthur

(1880-1964): United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II; he accepted the surrender of Japan

Chester Nimitz

(1885-1966): Nimitz served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them--using aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy

Dwight Eisenhower

American general and 34th president of the United States. He was the principal architect of the successful Allied invasion of Europe during WORLD WAR II (D-DAY) and of the subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany. As president, he ended the Korean War, but his two terms (1953-1961) produced few legislative landmarks or dramatic initiatives in foreign policy. His presidency is remembered as a period of relative calm in the United States.

Patton

The Commander of the Allied forces in North Africa; involved in the Normandy invasion and the Battle of the Bulge; known for his great ability in tank warfare

Thomas Dewey

He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.

Harry Truman

The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945; led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.

Einstein

physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity

War Production Board

Created in 1942, this organization oversaw the production of planes, tanks, artillery pieces, and munitions needed for entering WWII

Office of Price Administration

Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.

War Labor Board

settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high

Smith-Connally Act

Act of 1943 that authorized the government to seize plants useful to the war. It was created after coal miners went on strike in 1943 led by John l. Lewis

braceros

Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.

Fair Employment Practices Committee

(FEPC) aimed at insuring morale and maximum use of labor force by preventing employer discrimination against workers because of race or religion. The efforts of this committee laid the foundation for the Civil Rights movement of the 1950's.

Casablanca Conference

A wartime conference held at Casablanca, Morocco that was attended by de Gaulle, Churchill, and FDR. The Allies demanded the unconditional surrender of the axis, agreed to aid the Soviets, agreed on the invasion Italy, and the joint leadership of the Free French by De Gaulle and Giraud.

Teheran Conference

December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.

second front

the invasion of western Europe by the U.S ,British, and French in 1944. This invasion was to take presure off the Russians and divide the Germans. It was established by the D-Day Invasion.

D Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

V-E Day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

V-J Day

August 15, 1945 - the Victory in Japan Day when the Japanese surrendered

Potsdam Conference

July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction; Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.

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