How many sets of alleles do you carry? Where do you get them?
2 sets from mother and 2 sets from father = 4 sets total
Describe phenotypic traits and where do the come from?
Characterization of organisms by their appearance or physiology, sorting individuals into observable groups (ex: blue eyes, height, blood type, having sickle cell anemia) - These traits come from our alleles
What are the 6 levels of genetics that we can study?
1. Organism level (human)
2. Cellular Level
3. Chromosomal level (including banding)
4. Single Specific Chromosomal Pair Level
5. Where the genes are located
6. DNA sequence level
Define "haploid" and what types of species fall into this category?
contain only one copy of a genome (fungi, algae, bacteria)
Define "diploid" and what types of species fall into this category?
contain two copies of their genomes (most plants and animals)
Different forms of the same gene, located in the same position along the chromosome in each individual.
Define "heterozygous" and give example
gene pair with two different alleles in two chromosome sets (ex: A/a)
Define "homozygous" and give example
gene pair with identical alleles in both copies (ex: A/A)
How are chromosomes numbered?
Larger chromosomes have smaller numbers and smaller chromosomes have larger numbers
How many bonds connect A - T?
How many bonds connect G - C?
Which pair have stronger bonds?
2 hydrogen bonds
3 hydrogen bonds
G - C pair is stronger; while A - T is easier to break
Name the three chemical components of DNA
phosphate, deoxyribose sugar, and one of the four nitrogenous bases
Define "purine" and which nitrogenous bases are considered to have this structure?
long molecules, double-ring structure - Adenine & Guanine
Define "pyrimidine" and which nitrogenous bases are considered to have this structure?
short molecules, single-ring structure - Cytosine & Thymine
linear chain of amino acids (polypeptide), encoded by gene, subject to variation
What is considered the "central dogma"
the understanding that: DNA --> mRNA --> polypeptide (protein)