Mammalogy Lab Practical #2

Created by jmloverich8 

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144 terms

Hystricomorpha:

Large infraorbital canal for masseter that originates on rostrum

Myomorpha:

Slit-like infraorbital canal for masseter that originates of rostrum

Sciuromorpha:

No infraorbital canal
masseter originates on anterior plate/fossa of zygoma

Sciurognathus:

Flat-sided dentary with obvious coronoid process

Hystricognathus:

Flared out dentary with reduced coronoid process

Lower Primates

Strepsirhini

Strepsirhini Orders

1) Daubentoniidae,
2) Lemuridae,
3) Galagonidae,
4) Loridae

Higher Primates

Haplorhini

Haplorhini Orders

1) Tarsiidae,
2) Calltrichidae,
3) Cebidae,
4) Cercopithecidae,
5) Hylobatidae,
6) Hominidae

Lemuridae

Restricted to Madagascar,
Long rostrum,
orbits directed to side,
elongate braincase

Daubentoniidae

Narrow rostrum,
chisel-like teeth,
thin probing digit to pull grubs out of trees, Madagascar

Loridae

Orbits are large and forward,
temporal ridges,
Asia and Africa

Galagonidae

Orbits directed to side,
no temporal ridges,
sagittal crest,
Africa

Tarsiidae

Huge eyes,
expanded tips (pads) on digits,
elongate hindlimbs,
5 cheek teeth,
Indonesia & Borneo

Calltrichidae

Marmosets & tamarins,
small skulls,
5 cheek teeth,
South America

Cebidae

New World Monkeys,
Six cheek teeth,
molars with hollowed groove running down middle, most with prehensile tails,
C & S. Am

Cercopithecidae

Old world monkeys,
long rostrum/canines,
lower 1st premolar sharp angle,
4 cusped molars,
Africa & Asia

Hylobatidae

Long arms,
no tail,
short rostrum,
round brain case,
skull small for hominid,
long canines,
last low molar w/extra cusp,
SE Asia

Hominidae

Great apes and humans,
easiest to recognize,
Africa(Pan & Gorilla),
SE Asia (Pongo),
Homo

Post-orbital bar and comb-incisors

Strepsirhini

Post-orbital plate

Haplorhini

Elongated rostrum and brain case

Lemuridae

Flatter rostrums

Galagonidae/Loridae

6 cheek teeth

Cebidae

5 cheek teeth

Callitrichidae/Cercopithecidae

No angled 1st premolar

Callitrichidae

Angled 1st premolar on lower jaw

Cercopithecidae

Frugivores and brain size

Large brain and large home range

Folivores and brain size

Small brain and small home range

Temporal ridges/eyes directed forward

Loridae

Sagital crest well developed

Galagonidae

Pinnipeds

Odobenidae, Otariidae, Phocidae

Fissipeds

Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, Procyonidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae

Odobenidae

Walrus,
homodont,
canines = tusks, Arctic

Otariidae

Sea lions,
homodont,
postorbital process large,
hind limbs under body,
small pinnae,
pelt uniform,
N. Am./S. Am./Asia/Austrailia

Phocidae

True seals,
Homodont,
absent postorbital process,
hind limbs point posterior,
pinnae absent,
pelt spotted/ringed,
worldwide

Canidae

Dogs,
Long rostrum,
Big carnassials w/crushing post-carnassials,
3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3,
N./S. America, Eurasia

Ursidae

Bears,
Long rostrum,
small orbits,
non-shearing carnassials,
molars flattened,
3/3, 1/1, 4/4, 2/3,
N./S. America & Eurasia

Procyonidae

Racoons,
long rostrum,
premolars not reduced,
molars square,
bunodont 3/3, 1/1, 3/3, 1/2,
worldwide except Australia

Mustelidae

Weasels/badgers,
Short rostrum/long braincase,
barbel-shaped upper molar,
palate stops farther back

Mephitidae

Skunks,
short rostrum/long braincase,
barbel-shaped molar,
palate stops w/last molar,
Nearctic & Neotropical

Viverridae

Civets/Genets,
long braincase/short rostrum,
large premolars,
2molars wider than long,
3/3 1/1 3/4 2/2,
Africa/Asia/Europe

Herpestidae

Mongooses & Meerkats,
Africa & Asia,
very similar to viverrids

Hyaenidae

Hyenas,
large skull,
enlarged carnassials,
crushing molars,
2nd lower cheek tooth larger than last lower cheek tooth,
3/3 1/1 4/3 1/1,
Africa and India

Felidae

Cats,
Short rostrum,
large orbits,
carnassials large,
tooth number reduced,
tiny last upper molar,
lower cheek teeth in back largest,
3/3 1/1 3/2 1/1,
Worldwide ex. Australia

The larger the slicing pair of carnassials...

...the higher percentage of meat in diet

Aardwolf

Hyaenidae

African lion and Leopard

Felidae

sea otter

Enhydra lutris (Mustelidae)

Wolverine

Mustelidae

Genet

Viverridae

Mongoose

Herpestidae

Badger characteristics

large nuchal crest/ right angled upper molar

Who has Os penis (baculum)?

Primates, rodents, insectivores, carnivores, chiroptera

Homodonty of cheek teeth

Piscivorous

Otariidae, phosidae, mustelidae, odobenidae

Member of this family eat fish

Wide grinding flat molars

Herbivorous

Ursidae, procyonidae, mustelidae

Herbivorous families

Massively reduced cheek teeth

Eat soft-bodied insects

Hyaenidae

family that eats soft-boded insects

Wide flat molars for grinding

Omnivorous

Ursidae/procyonidae

families that are omnivorous

carnassial pair huge slicing, reduced cheek teeth

Carnivorous

felidae, viverridae, hyaenidae, canidae

Families that have truly carnivorous members

Ursidae skull

large w/large canine,
flat grinding molars

Ursus americanus skull

last molar widest in middle

Ursus arctos skull

last molar widest at anterior end

Procyonidae skull

cheek teeth flattened for grinding

Procyon lotor skull

palate extends posterior to cheektooth row

Bassariscus astutus skull

sheering teeth,
palate ends where cheek teeth end

Nasua nasua skull

blade-like canines

Felidae skull

short rostrum/large orbits/reduced cheek teeth #, SHEARING

Lynx rufus skull

3 post-canine cheekteeth

Puma concolr skull

larger size,
4 post-canine cheekteeth

Hyaenidae skull

massive premolar and molar

Viverridae skull

confused with mustelids/ringtails,
CONSTRICTED bullae

Otariidae skull

post-orbital process and HOMODONTY

Phocidae skull

No-postorbital process and HOMODONTY

Canidae skull

long/narrow rostrum with shearing cheekteeth and grinding

FOXES skull

postorbital process thin
w/ concave fossa,

Vulpes spp. skull

round braincase,
not temporal ridges

Urocyon cinereoargenteus skull

lyre-shaped temporal ridge,
notch in lower mandible

COYOTES/DOGS skull

Postorbital process thick and convex

Canis latrans skull

narrow rostrum and small size

Canis lupus skull

broader rostrum,
larger skull

Mustelidae skull

short rostrum,
long braincase,
last molar wider than long

Taxidae taxus skull

triangle braincase,
triangular last molar

Mustela frenata skull

small,
elongate braincase,
last molar dumbell

Lontra canadensis skull

flat skull profile,
jaw locked into cranium

Mephitidae skull

palate ends even with cheektooth row

Mephitis mephitis skull

round cranium,
nasals not shortened

Conepatus skull

nasals end above canine slanting to incisors,
3 cheekteeth

Spilogale skull

flat skull,
highest in rear

Leporidae skull

supraorbital shield

Sylvilagus skull

Interparietal bone

What genera have atricial/prococial young?

Lepus and Sylvilagus

Lepus (rabbit or hare?)

Rabbit

Sylvilagus (rabbit or hare?)

Hare

Ocotonidae

Pika - 5 cheek teeth,
no supraorbital shield
Round ears/no tail
High mtns - Rockies/Sierras of N.A.

Leporidae

Rabbits/Hares - 6 cheek teeth
supraorbital shield
long ears/small tail
2 N.A. genera - lepus and Sylvilagus

Lepus skull

interparietal fused to parietal
long legs/ears
young born precocial

Sylvilagus skull

Interparietal not fused to parietal
ears/legs shorter
young born atricial

Long paraoccipital process

Myocastoridae

incisor smooth, large skull

Erethizontidae

incisor grooved, small skull

Dipodidae

long bony tubes of tympanum
"fudgesickle" lophs on molars

Aplodontidae

skull large
post-orbital process small,
sciuromorphous

Castoridae

Postorbital process present/pointed
pi-shaped ectolophs

Sciuridae

Infraorbital foramen large
Auditory bullae inflated

Heteromyidae

Infraorbital foramen small
auditory bullae not inflated
tail short/small eyes

Geomyidae

Infraorbital foramen long vertical slit

Muridae (myomorphous)

Most diverse rodent family

Muridae

Muridae subfamilies

Murinae (old world)
Microtinae (voles, muskrats)
Cricetinae (New World mice/rats)

Upper molars triangles
ears and eyes small
tail short/well haired

Microtinae

Upper molars with cusps in 3 rows
tail naked or sparsely haired

Murinae

Upper molars with cusps in 2 rows
tail well haired and bicolored

Cricetinae

Largest rodent in AZ
semi-aquatic
feeds on inner bark of riparian trees

castor canadensis

Hair modified into sharp quills
Arborial/feeds on tree bark

Erethizon dorsatum

Fossorial
small eyes and ears
short tail
fur-lined external cheek pouches
desert to high elevation forests

Thomomys bottae

Mouse-sized
long tail/hindlimbs
jumping
White Mountains

Zapus hudsonius

Sides of head with dark stripe through eye
stripes on back
woodlands

Tamias dorsalis (faded grey stripes)
Tamias cinereicollis (more distinct stripes)

One whitish strip on side of body
sparse fur
tail held over back
deserts/desert grasslands

Amospermophilus leucrurus (white tail)
Amospermophilus harrisi (grey tail)

Back with stripes or spots
No black stripe through eye

Spermophilus lateralis (conifer woodlands)
Spermophilus variegatus (woodlands, grasslands, deserts, human areas)

White belly, red/brown sides
Spruce/fir forests

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)

Uniformly tannish,
short tail
Colonial burrower
Grasslands

Cynomys gunnisoni

White belly, grey above
bushy tail
large sciurid

Sciurus aberti (ponderosa pine)
Sciurus arizonensis (riparian areas)

Dipodidae skull

smaller grooved incisors

Geomyidae skull

Larger grooved incisors

Erethizontidae skull

Triangle zig-zag molars

Aplodontidae skull

popsickle teeth

Muridae skull

myomorphous

Heteromyidae skull

Hole in rostrum

Sciurognathus example

Castoridae

Hystricognathus example

Myocastoridae

Sciuromorphous example

Castoridae

Myomorphous example

Muridae

Hystricomrphous example

Myocastoridae
Dipodidae
Erethizontidae

Genera in Heteromyidae in AZ

Perognathus
Chaetodipus
Dipodomys

Dipodomys in AZ

ordii (5 toes)
merriami (4 toes)
spectabilis (banner-tail)

Chaetodipus in AZ

spines on rump
tail tuft

Perognathus in AZ

small, silky
tuft or none

Microtinae in AZ

Microtus montanus
Microtus longicaudus (long tail)
Clethrionomys gapperi (red back)

Cricetinae in AZ

Reithrodontomys (grooved incisor, smaller)
Onychomys (shorter tail, grey)
Peromyscus (bi-colored tail)
Neotoma (larger, shorter tail)
Sigmodon (puffy, larger)

Murinae in AZ

Rattus norvegicus
Mus musculus

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